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JAMB Scraps Awaiting Result as it Introduces Fourth Choice of School

JAMB Scraps Awaiting Result as it Introduces Fourth Choice of School

Change they say is the only constant thing in life. As the day passes by, different organisations, institutions and administration come up with new policies. This time the mantle has fallen on the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB).

The Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) has announced that candidates who have not received their O’level results will not be able to apply or secure admission in higher institutions.

Hmm! Are you kidding me? I can't easily forget those days when JAMB examination/UME was the only criterion for students to secure admission in higher institution. Then nobody needed to bother about aptitude test/post UME. It was like that for sometime before the post UTME matter started parading itself. Now the latest is 'No more Awaiting Result (AR)." In other words, you must get your O'level results (WAEC or NECO) intact before applying for JAMB examination.

In a statement released on Tuesday, February 28, the examination body said it was part of its restructuring plan for 2017 and that it would prevent students from securing spots they are not qualified for.

The board promised that the sales of form will commence in March and warned candidates against the use of  cyber cafe for its registration.It would also interest you to know that the examination body has also introduced a fourth choice of school option for candidates but candidates would be able to select only one government school.

Read the detailed statement below:

The Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board, JAMB, has concluded all restructuring, transformation, reforms and other preparation for the 2017 UTME and is now set to commence the sale of its application document in March, 2017.We sincerely appreciate the patience exhibited by Nigerians in allowing us take time to add value to the services we have been offering to Nigerians for over three decades. 
Because we need a different and progressive result that will position Nigerian educational system in an enviable height in the comity of nations, then we must do things differently. The Board is poised to see that a reasonable percentage of candidates who take this examination and are qualified find placement in tertiary institutions. 
In the cause of conducting admission exercise, many institutions have admitted candidates on merit only for them to discover that such candidates do not have qualified O’levels results or the right combination for admission and had to delete and start the process all over again. With this, they would have denied other qualified candidates the opportunities for admissions. 
This we are addressing by ensuring that no candidate is henceforth recommended without his O’levels result being supplied. To achieve this, JAMB will insist that candidates supply their result on its website during registration or later, but before admissions commences for them to be considered for admissions. We believe this will allow only qualified candidates to be considered for admissions. 
We have designed a Central Admissions Processing System (CAPS) where the Board will interface with the institutions and ensure the compliance of this reform. The summary is that no candidate will be admitted with awaiting result. Candidates and their parents are also to note that the Board has restructured the registration platform to allow for only one choice of Public University. The new registration platform will now be first choice, second choice, third choice and fourth choice and not most preferred, preferred etc as it was. 
Candidates’ first choice can be a College, University, Innovative Enterprises Institutions or Polytechnic/Monotechnic. However, if a candidate makes a Public University his first choice, he will not have any public University to choose for 2nd, 3rd and 4th choice. He will have on the remaining three choices, a College, a Polytechnic, Private University and IEI’S. However, candidates for the 2017 UTME can now select NCE (College) or ND (Polytechnic/Monotechnic) as their 1st choice up to 3rd choice and the 4th IEI. They can select the IEI (Innovative Enterprise Institution, ND) as their 1st choice up to the 4th choice, but can only pick a public university once. 
This restructuring is to expand the opportunities available to candidates as almost all the public universities do not consider candidates on the second choice list because they hardly exhaust their first choice. 
The registration of UTME this year will go side by side with the Direct Entry and during registration, candidates 10 fingeare to be captured using Biometric Verification Machine (BVN). 
Again, we want to inform candidates that no cyber caf√© will be registering candidates for our examination. On no account should any candidate patronize any cybercaf√© for our registration. It is important to note that the Board will not deploy the use of any scratch card for the 2017 UTME registration exercise. 

UST Vs UNIPORT: The Earlier You Stop the Fight the Better for You

UST Vs UNIPORT: The Earlier You Stop the Fight the Better  for You

ELS Speaks:
I know you will say it is just for the fun of it but please spare me that bullshit. Some jokes are really expensive you know. To call a spade a spade, it is awkward, laughable, appalling and pitiable that students of prestigious universities will engage themselves in such a demeaning battle, charcterized by futility. Well, these are candid thoughts of concerned citizens on the ongoing feud among students of the Rivers State University of Science Technology  (RSUST) and students of the University of Port Harcourt (UNIPORT).  A word they say is enough for the wise.

Joy Daniel Nwachukwu Writes:
Monday morning thought

My attention has being drawn to the vague, unreasonable, rivalry between two prestigious universities of my beloved Rivers state,Yes! I call Rivers state my beloved because while I don't claim to be a native, I pride in it knowing it as my place of abode for more than two decades..

back to the issue on ground...first, I want to know why the competition?second, what do we hope to achieve?third, what should be our yardstick for comparison?

Inasmuch as we all want to showcase our alma mata as bin better than others, it should be in a more logical, constructive and healthy manner, not in the meme, despicable caricature I see.. to the extent that our academics are included in the useless fight.

Great Nigerian Students, it is high time we stopped this fight before it turns out to a bloody clash, soon some gullible, unscrupulous element will hijack this rivalry and turn it into some tin we never bargained for..such a thing is infectious and can even spread to other states like a wild fire....

Rather than continue in this arrogance, lets have a more organised ,intellectual fight, debate, that will push us to stretch ourselves and be better for our society and Nigeria at large.


Sarah Daba Wilson Writes:
It beats my imagination to even think that graduates or students of prestigious higher institutions of learning; citadels that have produced diverse caliber of highly influential ladies and gentlemen will engage in a greatly demeaning cyber battle. A battle which its beginning cannot actually be traced or its essence figured out. I must say, in all honesty, this battle, that is bereft of any academic significance or economic relevance is a pointer to the narrow mindedness of some youth. It speaks of the fallen standards of morality in our universities. Students now make a maddening mockery of established, hallowed institutions; institutions that came into existence by acts of law? Need I say more? UNIPORT and RSUST are both degree awarding institutions and as such have and will continue to turn out seasoned young minds so pls my dear friends pick some other topic for your "child's play".It is indeed a shame and should be discouraged in its entirety.

Kwara State University Becomes the First University to Offer Aeronautical Engineering in Nigeria

Kwara State Becomes the First University to Offer Aeronautical Engineering

Hmmm! This is really nice! It is indeed a plus to the field of Engineering and the Kwara State University. History will never forget this. One of the most painful experiences of any student is studying an unaccredited course in a Nigerian university and discovering later. This news will no doubt take care of this and also add to the already existing options of engineering courses in the institution for new students to have a feel of the new aspect of engineering. It will also showcase the institution within and outside the country.

Are you yet to get the gist? Now to the crux of the matter.

The National Universities Commission (NUC), has approved Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering as a course in Kwara State University (KWASU). The one in a million news was made known by the Vice Chancellor of the institution, Prof AbdulRasheed Na'Allah in a press release by the university.

The statement reads:

The NUC has formally written the Kwara State University approving the University's full mode of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering (B. Eng.) degree program.

I must congratulate all our students and staff in Engineering, especially the department of aeronautical and astronautical engineering for their hard work and patience, that have led to this great success.

By this news, KWASU has retained its record as the first-ever Nigerian University to institute a degree program in Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering.

Our dear students and staff can be proud of their University! We have formally submitted an invitation to NUC for accreditation as we are fully ready for the NUC accreditation.”

According to
An aeronautic engineer is the individual who is responsible for the design, building and science of aircraft. The field is closely related to astronautical engineering; both aeronautical and astronautical engineering are branches of aerospace engineering. The topics involved in aeronautic engineering include propulsion, materials science, avionics and aerodynamics.

Aeronautical engineering then becomes the study of how aircraft are designed, constructed and powered, how they are used and how they are controlled for safe operation.

This is just a great news! Congrats KWASU!

When Should I Use "Will" and "Shall"?

When Should I Use "Will" and "Shall"?
'Will' and 'Shall' are words both native speakers and learners of English use interchangeably. Both words are future tenses as they are used to indicate an action that will be implemented in the future.

The only difference between these words is their usage. According to the rules of grammar, 'will' should only used with the second and third person pronouns whereas 'shall' should be only be used with the first person pronoun.

Singular Forms
First Person Pronoun = I
Second Person Pronoun = You
Third Person Pronoun = It/She/He

Plural Forms
First Person Pronoun = We
Second Person pronoun = You
Third Person pronoun = They

Having stated that, let's see some sentence examples:

Don't Say: I will be there/We will be there.
Say: I shall be there/We shall be there.

Don't say: You shall be there.
Say: You will be there.

Don't Say: She/He/It/They shall come with us.
Say: She/He/It/They will come with us.

In sum, 'will' is used with the second and third person pronouns (you, it, she, he, they) whereas 'shall' is used with the first person pronouns (I, they).
Hope you got the message. If not, use the comment box to ask your questions.

Unique Ways You Can Be Among the Best Students in Your Class

Unique Ways You Can Be Among the Best Students in Your Class

I don't think there is anybody who wants to be the last in his/her class. In fact, all students aim higher in the beginning but are always discouraged and disillusioned when their outputs don't in any way correspond with their inputs; therefore, paving way for laziness and unseriousness. It is in this scenario you can distinguish between students who are determined to succeed and those who are not. Remember, life is not a bed of roses and most times it does give us what we want so you must adhere to this popular saying, 'when the going gets tough, only the tough gets going.'

The fact that your output doesn't correspond with your input does not make you a dullard. Don't ever say she is more/he is more brilliant than me. God is not wicked to make your brain dull and that of your friend very active. The simple truth is that there are things you are not doing rightly. In this article, I will be exposing the methods I adopted as an undergraduate that made me excel in my academics:

As a student, the first thing you should do is to set a target for yourself. Your target is your aims and objectives. It keeps you on track by calling you to order anytime you are deviating. Your failure to set a target marks the beginning of your failure. Do you want to be the overall best in your school or class? Do you want to graduate with a CGPA of 3.50 and above? Do you want to score nothing less than a 'B' in all courses/subjects?  If yes, then this should be your target.

As an undergraduate, I never liked any grade less than a 'B.' The reason is simple: the grade that comes after 'B' is 'C' and if a student should get a 'C' in all his courses throughout his stay in the university, that student graduates with a CGPA of 3.00 (which is Second Class: lower division). What will I do with that? For me, it is not presentable, so my target was to get 'As' in all my courses and if any course was too difficult, it should just be a 'B.'  The point is that the higher your target, the better for you. Most students will say all I just need in that course is an 'E' (Pharaoh let my people go). This is really laughable and pitiable.

You don't just set a target and leave it. You must work towards achieving it, and this is where knowing yourself comes in. Are you the type that understands while reading in a quiet environment? Do you easily understand while reading at night? Do you understand while reading in the day? What time and where do you easily comprehend what you read? As a student, you are expected to know this.

For me, I don't have a reading time. I can read in any hour of the day and still understand. All I need to have are willingness and concentration. This might not work for you and that is why you must know yourself. You will only make the classroom your sleeping room if you follow your friend who is good at reading at night to night classes.

Nobody forced you to go to school so I don't see any reason you won't attend lectures. To become a bright student, you should attend lectures and always sit in a position where you can hear what your lecturer or teacher is saying.

'The lecturer was too fast' is the major excuse students give when you ask them for their notes. You don't expect the lecturer to be slow. Do you? As one my professors would say. 'I am not here to teach you but to guide you.' Lecturers are not teachers; they are synonymous to guiders. What they do is to introduce the topic to you while you make your research. Only a few of them will give you comprehensive notes. In fact, I have come to realise that I thought myself 60% of what I knew as an undergraduate.

As an undergraduate I always developed my notes after lectures. I went to classes with my rough note to get the main points, made research on the them, then developed my note. The interesting part is that when the semester examination was very close, students paid me in order to get the photocopy of my note. Hard work pays! I made reasonable amount from that and I am cocksure you can do same.

Every teacher/lecturer has his/her pattern of setting examination questions. Ask from your predecessors or senior colleagues the past questions of any lecturer/teacher who has taught them and is now teaching you. When given, revise these past questions and attempt them.  It is not guaranteed the questions will be repeated but it becomes a work over for you if any of the attempted questions is presented in the exam. It also exposes you to the patterns and styles lecturers adopt in setting their questions. This will no doubt show you the areas of concentration while reading.

I adopted this method and it really worked for me so you can give it a try.

If you know what an 'E' or 'F' can do to your result despite the number of 'As' and 'Bs' decorating them, you will learn to pay more attention to your weak subjects/courses.  Remember, no school will admit you if you don't have Mathematics or English. As an undergraduate, all courses are relevant because failing or having a very low grade in any can make you miss your target. Do not let any of them to suffer.

Back then in school, I could easily pass my language courses but was really battling with my literature courses because of the numerous books so I decided to give more attention to the literature courses which I ended up passing very well although I had an appalling performance in one of them. The method I adopted is the 'time stipulation method.' If I read my language courses for an hour, I would read my literature courses for three hours or more. It really helped. Now I can analyse a literary text like kilode.

Yes! Don't be surprised. It is very important you read to know but in course of reading, there are certain areas which need cramming and it will affect you if you don't have the cramming skill.

I read English and Literary Studies and most of the literature courses required contextual analysis- a situation where you are expected to analyse a literary text backing it up with statements made by  characters/persona (in poems) and adding the page/line where it is found. Who on earth will ask you this outside the examination hall? However, for the purpose of the exam, you need to cram all these in order to pass very well.  That is why I said you must learn how to cram but reading to know is very vital.

Nobody is a reservoir of knowledge.  After reading, you can ask questions in areas that are not very clear to you. Most persons think it is embarrassing to ask questions, especially when it has to do with their junior colleague. My dear, learning is a continuous process; it does not matter who you learn from. You can form a reading group where you share ideas with your fellow classmates after reading. It helps too.

The right to prepare is now. Stop the procrastination! Remember, proper preparation prevents poor performance. Don't be carried away by frivolities. You are there to study and you must study to show thyself approved. Reading when it is very close to exam will no doubt affect your overall performance.

Many lecturers out there are destroyers of students' destinies. I call them Sadists. Most times students write very well but are intentionally failed by these lecturers because the students failed to sort or keep to one their unholy commandments. Therefore, until your result is finally published, do not stop asking God to take absolute control. I was always a prayer warrior during and after my exams and God showcased His Sovereignty in my academics.

If totally adhere to, the aforementioned method will cause a turn around in your CGPA and result.

Wrong Telephone Expressions You Should Avoid.

Wrong Telephone Expressions You Should Avoid.

English is not our mother tongue, so we learn it every day to speak it almost like its native speakers. This blog helps you to achieve that.

The word 'telephone' comes from Latin and Greek. 'Tele' means 'distance' in Latin whereas 'phone' means 'sound' in Greek. So, the compound word 'telephone' simply means 'distance sound'.

It is no news that wrong English expressions, most times, seem to be very pleasant to the ears more than their correct forms. This is very common among second learners of English and has also affected their telephone language. The other day, I showed you Some Very Correct but Totally Wrong Expressions You Should AvoidToday, we shall look at some wrong telephone expressions you should also avoid.

Below are some wrong telephone expressions and their correct forms:

Do not say: I saw your missed call
Say: I missed your call.

Do not say: Your voice is cracking
Say: The line is breaking

Do not say: Flash me
Say: Give me a drop-call, beep me or give me a beep

Do not say: I am hearing you
Say: I can hear you.

Do not say: Come again
Say: I can't hear you.

Someone has just learnt something new. Congratulations to you!

ELS Speaks: The Big Brother Naija: A Hand Down of Immorality and Indecency.

ELS Speaks: The Big Brother Naija: A Hand Down of Immorality and Indecency.
There's a notorious programme currently going on called THE BIG BROTHER NAIJA. The winner of this notorious show is expected to walk away with a whopping N25 million and a breathtaking car. All that is required to win this show is to Live with a bunch of fellow crazy, irresponsible people, do all sorts of immoral things, and, viola, you're the winner.
Next thing, you're called a celebrity, winning big advertisement contracts and becoming the face of multinational companies.

If only there could be an educating version of this programme. If only they could house some intelligent people in like manner and make them compete for similar prizes. But, no! Our people do not encourage sanity. Our society promotes evil over good, indecency over decency, immorality over morality, and ungodliness over godliness.

The best in Mathematics competitions will go home with either a carton of cowbell milk or Indomie noodles, ridiculous stipends and laughable prizes. Yet these morons in BBN will earn millions for coming to suck breasts, speak thrash, display nudity, and get under the sheets on International TVs.

Our rich individuals, companies and corporate organisations will spend huge sums of money sponsoring dirty shows like BBN and Beauty Pageants where they will enthrone satanic activities, display nudity, molest our under aged girls, and make them win on bottom power rather than on real beauty and brains. Can anyone forget the Anambra State born Chidinma Okeke saga in a hurry?

What a wasted generation! What a time! How do we raise, nurture and produce the next Chike Obis, Chinua Achebes, Wole Soyinkas, Cyril stover, Apostle olatunde Adekunle, and yes, P.O.C. Akorefes???? What foundation are we laying for coming generations? What message of hope and legacy are we leaving behind? What epistle are we sending to the future to testify to it that the past made some level of contributions. Is Immorality the legacy we really want to hand down to the next generation? Are we not losing our minds?

Let all people of goodwill come together and raise alarm against this dirty programme. Let us all with one voice and in unison say, "We've had enough of this nonsense." Let us blow the trumpet in Zion and declare war on these encouragers of evil tendencies and promoters of these demonic programmes targeted at our highly impressionable youths. We should see that this programme is replaced with a more intelligent and educative programme.

Nigeria is broke morally and financially, yet the sponsors are wasting millions of Naira on a highly immoral programme. Please what is the lesson that one can learn from this Big Brother show? What can our YOUTHS pick from it? I know this kind of write up doesn't get many shares. But if we keep quiet, then we are silent conspirators.

So share. Share until a thought process is provoked in the heart of everyone and we can stand up to say, Enough of this nonsense."

How to Use Prepositions of Place.

How to Use Prepositions of Place.

A preposition is a small word that shows the relationship between nouns in sentence.
The book is on the table.

In the above sentence, the preposition 'on' is showing the relationship between the nouns 'the book' and 'the table.'

I am sure you are only conversant with adverbs of place and that is why in today's English tutorial we are going to look at some prepositions of place that are common in English. Let’s have a look at what they mean and how to use them.

Prepositions of place are prepositions that are used to refer to the location of someone or something. Some of these prepositions are:

in front of - facing, ahead of or close to the front part of someone or something.
• Hannah was in front of me in the queue.

behind - “behind” is the opposite of “in front of” and means at the back part of someone or something or in or to a position further back than someone or something.
• Charles sits behind me in English class. He disturbs a lot!

between - refers to an object which is in the middle of two objects or places.
• When you park your car you must park between the yellow lines.

across from - also means opposite, it means that something is in front of someone or something but normally that they are separated by something in the middle, like a road or table.
• At the meeting yesterday the boss sat across from me and he kept looking at me the whole time!

next to / beside - “beside” and “next to” have the same meaning and refer to a thing or a person which is on the side of something else.
• Please can I sit next to you during the movie?

near / close to - “near” and “close to” have the same meaning. They mean that something is not very far away.
• The Kiosk is near my house, only a two minute walk.

on - means something is touching another thing normally on top covering or attached.
• I sat on my brother’s phone and broke his screen.

above / over - above and over have the same meaning, it means that something is higher than another thing or over the top of.
• Can you see the plane flying above us?

under / below - below and under have the same meaning and they mean something is at a lower level than something else or that something is above it.
• Whenever we have dinner the dog sits under the table and waits for us to give him a treat.

Comprehensive Literature Syllabus for JAMB 2017

There is now a sign of relief among students who will be sitting for the 2017 Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME), following the recent announcement of the date for the examination by the board. Students who had backed out or lost interest in the examination due to the delay in the announcement of the date of examination should fasten their seat belts and get themselves well equipped in order to come out in flying colours. In other words, it is time study in order to show thyself approved, come May, 2017.

For those who will be writing Literature, here is a comprehensive syllabus of the subject.

a. Types:
i. Tragedy
ii. Comedy
iv. Melodrama
v. Farce
vi. Opera etc.
b. Dramatic Techniques
  • Characterisation
  • Dialogue. 
  • Flashback
  • Mime
  • Costume
  • Music/Dance
  • Decor/scenery
  • Acts/Scenes
  • Soliloquy/aside
  • Lighting etc.
 c. Interpretation of the Prescribed Texts
  • Theme
  • Plot
  • Socio-political context
  • Setting
Objectives of the Drama Genre
Candidates should be able to:
  • Identify the various types of drama;
  • Analyse the contents of the various types of drama;
  • Compare and contrast the features of different dramatic types;
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of dramatic techniques used in each prescribed text;
  • Differentiate between styles of selected playwrights;
  • Determine the theme of any prescribed text;
  • Identify the plot of the play;
  • Apply the lessons of the play to everyday living
  • Identify the spatial and temporal setting of the play.
a. Types:
i. Fiction
  • *Novel
  • *Novella/Novelette
  • *Short story
ii. Non-fiction
  • *Biography
  • *Autobiography
  • *Memoir
iii. Faction: combination of fact and fiction.
b. Narrative Techniques/Devices:
i. Point of view
  • *Omniscient/Third Person
  • *First Person
ii. Characterisation
  • Round
  • Flat
  • Foil
  • Hero
  • Antihero etc
iii. Language
c. Textual Analysis
  • Theme
  • Plot 
  • Setting (Temporal/Spatial)
  • Socio-political context
Objectives of the Prose Genre
Candidates should be able to:
  • Differentiate between types of prose;
  • Identify the category that each prescribed text belongs to;
  • Analyse the components of each type of prose;
  • Identify the narrative techniques used in each of the prescribed texts;
  • Determine an author’s narrative style;
  • Distinguish between one type of character from another;
  • Determine the thematic pre-occupation of the author of the prescribed text;
  • Indicate the plot of the novel; identify the temporal and spatial setting of the novel.
  • Identify the temporal and spatial setting of the novel
  • Relate the prescribed text to real life situations.
a. Types:
  • Sonnet
  • Ode
  • Lyrics
  • Elegy
  • Ballad
  • Panegyric
  • Epic
  • Blank Verse, etc.
b. Poetic devices
  • Structure
  • Imagery
  • Sound(Rhyme/Rhythm, repetition, pun, onomatopoeia, etc.)
  • Diction 
  • Persona
c. Appreciation
  • Thematic preoccupation
  • Socio-political relevance
  • Style
Objectives Of The Poetry Genre
Candidates should be able to:
  • Identify different types of poetry;
  • Compare and contrast the features of different poetic types:
  • Determine the devices used by various poets;
  • Show how poetic devices are used for aesthetic effect in each poem;
  • Deduce the poet’s preoccupation from the poem;
  • Appraise poetry as an art with moral values;
  • Apply the lessons from the poem to real life situations.
a. Literary terms:
Foreshadowing, suspense, theatre, monologue, dialogue, soliloquy, symbolism, protagonist, antagonist, figures of speech, satire, stream of consciousness, synecdoche, metonymy, etc,
in addition to those listed above under the different genres.
b. Literary principles
  • Direct imitation in play;
  • Versification in drama and poetry;
  • Narration of people’s experiences;
  • Achievement of aesthetic value, etc.
c. Relationship between literary terms and principles.

Objectives of General Literary Principle
Candidates should be able to:
  • Identify literary terms in drama, prose and poetry;
  • Identify the general principles of Literature;
  • Differentiate between literary terms and principles;
  • Use literary terms appropriately.
Unseen passages/extracts from Drama, Prose and Poetry.
Candidates should be able to:
  • Determine literary devices used in a given passage/extract;
  • Provide a meaningful interpretation of the given passage/extract;
  • Relate the extract to true life experiences.
  • Frank Ogodo Ogbeche : Harvest of Corruption
Non African:
  • William Shakespeare : Othello
  • Amma Darko : Faceless
  • Bayo Adebowale : Lonely Days
  • Richard Wright : Native Son
  • Birago Diop : Vanity
  • Gbemisola Adeoti : Ambush
  • Gabriel Okara : Piano and Drums
  • Gbanabam Hallowell : The Dining Table
  • Lenrie Peter : The Panic of Growing Older
  • Kofi Awoonor : The Anvil and the Hammer
Non African:
  • Alfred Tennyson : Crossing the Bar
  • George Herbert : The Pulley
  • William Blake : The School Boy
  • William Morris : The Proud King
1. Anthologies
  • Gbemisola, A. (2005)Naked Soles. Ibadan: Kraft
  • Hayward, J. (ed.) (1968) The Penguin Book of English Verse. London: Penguin
  • Johnson, R. et al (eds.) (1996) New Poetry from Africa. Ibadan: UP Plc
  • Kermode, F. et al (1964) Oxford Anthology of English Literature. Vol. II, London: OUP
  • Nwoga D. (ed.) (1967) West African Verse. London: Longman
  • Senanu, K. E. and Vincent, T. (eds.) (1993) A Selection of African Poetry. Lagos: Longman
  • Soyinka, W. (ed.) (1987) Poems of Black Africa. Ibadan: Heinemann
2. Critical Texts
  • Abrams, M. H. (1981) A Glossary of Literary Terms. (4th Edition) New York, Holt.
  • Emeaba, O. E. (1982) A Dictionary of Literature. Aba: Inteks Press.
  • Murphy, M. J. (1972) Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and English Novel for Overseas Students. George Allen and Unwin Ltd.