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Sep 17, 2018

The expected and unexpected challenges faced by all first-year students in Nigerian Universities

The expected and unexpected challenges faced by all first-year students in Nigerian Universities


The expected and unexpected challenges faced by all first-year students in Nigerian Universities
The challenges faced by first-year students of any Nigerian university cannot be compared to those faced by secondary school leavers who are doing everything possible to gain admission into any of the universities in Nigeria. It is assumed that the first year of freshers is always easy, straight and a run-on-the-mill experience where everything is gotten on a platter of gold since it is their first year in school. In fact, most first-year students have walked into the university with this sense of reasoning, only to realize that their assessment of the university environment is faulty and holds no water; thus, making them to buckle up and face the harsh realities of the tertiary institution with insurmountable seriousness.

As against general assumption, gaining admission into any Nigerian university does not put an end to the problems one faced while seeking admission into a university or any tertiary institution in Nigeria. Rather, it is the starting point for some familiar and unfamiliar challenges. These challenges are discussed below:

1. SETTLING DOWN
First on the mind is the curiosity of getting to know your new environment for the foreseeable future. House hunting is supposed to be done at this stage, and most students actually prefer having their lounge/apartment closer to the campus for easy transition. But when that isn't possible due to lack of space or unwillingness to live in campus-provided lounges, they tend to look outside for suitable houses with affordable price tags.

Getting used to campus environment is quite stressful because one has to find his faculty and teaching centres in the midst of other gigantic structures which are far away from where one lives.

2. LANGUAGE
Language is also a challenge as most universities are located in states or communities where one's mother tongue is not spoken. This will make it difficult to get vital information about the school and the community from the natives, especially the elderly ones who neither understand English nor Pidgin.

Besides, the importance of language in trade cannot be overemphasized. A food item of N200 can be sold to a student at N150 if he/she bargains price with the seller in the seller's language. In other words, a student who does not understand the language of the community where his/her school is located is likely to get goods and services at higher prices since most of the traders will be natives of that community.


3. LECTURE TIME
In most tertiary institution in Nigeria, lectures start at 8:00am and end at 4:00pm. However, some lecturers are good at fixing their lectures before and after the official time to suit their schedules for the day. First-year students always find this challenging since they are not used to it. 
  
4. CONGESTION OF THE LECTURE HALLS
Unlike in secondary schools, most of the lectures in universities take place in halls. And halls are usually bigger than classrooms, yet overcrowded to the extent that lecturers may be forced to speak with public address systems. This doesn't help the situation either, especially when they choose to do so in high tempo and linguistic accents that may be difficult to decode.

5. LECTURES' TEACHING STYLE AND MARKING SCHEME
The mode of teaching in any tertiary institution differs from what first-year students are used to in secondary schools. Most university lecturers only scratch a topic on its surface and compel the students to research on it. This is one of the familiar challenges that a first-year student encounters in any Nigerian university. Students are perceived by university power brokers to be sophisticated and flexible in all aspects of their academic lives hence the complex scheme of work.

Also, students whose secondary schools failed to implant in them the necessary ethos of dictate writing will struggle to take down important points as a lecturer explains a topic or dictates his note.

Surprisingly, most lecturers do not mark your examination scripts based on correctness. Rather, they mark them based on what they have given you in class. In other words, if your explanation of a concept does not correspond with the lecturer's, you will be awarded zero regardless of its correctness. This is entirely different from secondary school examinations where students can always go behind to pick points and ideas which correspond with their teachers' explanations but differ in style.

6. LIBERTY
Liberty is an unexpected challenge, too. Most first-year students who have been deprived of certain freedoms while in college or secondary school due to strict parental guidance or rules and regulations of their secondary schools, may want enjoy the freedom that comes with being university students. They develop this terrible habit of procrastination. Postponing and delaying every assignment, missing classes and indulging in other frivolities with friends. This, if not quickly and carefully managed, may cost the students their academics. One needs to strike the right balance between school and social affairs in order not to face the awkward distraction when they meet in loggerhead.

Freshers might just need to find repose in new ways because there are always going to be bouts of nostalgia by virtue of being new to town and having fewer sidekicks. The thoughts of family and friends left behind could come flooding in, especially at a time when they feel regress and need someone close to comfort them. 

Tertiary institutions have always been skilled at announcing themselves to incomers, especially 'jambites,' and these 'jambites' always arrive in quick successions. However, the ability to prepare for their arrival has been a major challenge. And that is why we have the aforementioned problems which may not be resolved soon. Therefore, determination, resolve and focus are the correct tools any fresher/freshman must wield in order to address these problems, and one just has to look beyond them in the right manner in order to maintain a positive outlook.

WRITTEN BY:
Victor Wisdom
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

Below is first term's scheme of work for Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) 1 - 3.
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1

Week 1: MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
i. Definition of Agriculture
ii. Branches of Agriculture
iii. Importance of Agriculture to the individual, community and the nation

Week 2: PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Problems created by inadequate:
i. Land
ii. Basic amenities
iii. Finance
iv. Transportation
v. Shortage and processing facilities
vi. Agricultural education and extension
vii. Tools and machinery
viii. Farm inputs

Week 3: SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIA
Possible solutions to identified problems

Week 4: HUSBANDRY OF SELECTED CROPS (ROOT AND TUBER CROPS) e.g.,YAM, CASSAVA, SWEET POTATOES.
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation
iv. Manuring and fertilizer application
v. Harvesting, processing and storage of the selected crops

Week 5: HUSBANDRY OF SELECTED CROPS (CEREALS) e.g., MAIZE, RICE etc.
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation, planting dates, seed rates, spacing, sowing depth
iv. Manuring and fertilizer requirements and application
v. Harvesting, processing and storage

Week 6: LAND AND ITS USES
i. Definition of land
ii. Uses of land for:
a. Agriculture
b. Forestry
c. Wildlife

Week 7: FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
Factors affecting land availability for Agricultural purposes:
i. Alternative uses of land, e.g. building of cities, towns, industries, roads
ii. Soil type and topography

Week 8: HUSBANDRY OF OIL CROPS, e.g., OIL PALM, MELON, GROUNDNUT
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation (pre-planting and planting operations)
iv. Manuring and fertilizer requirements
v. Harvesting, processing and storage of oil crops

Week 9: HUSBANDRY OF BEVERAGE, e.g., COCOA, TEA AND COFFEE
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation (pre-planting operations)
iv. Manuring and fertilizer requirements
v. Harvesting, processing and storage of beverage

Week 10: HUSBANDRY OF LATEX CROP, e.g. RUBBER
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation, nursery requirements
iv. Manuring and fertilizer requirements and application
v. Harvesting, processing and storage

Week 11: PRACTICAL: IDENTIFICATION
Identification of the common crops available, e.g. oil palm fruits, cocoa pod, kola nut, rubber seed, cotton seed and lint, groundnut pod, different species of maize etc.

Week 12 – 13
REVISION/EXAMINATION


First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 2

Week 1: AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
Land ownership and tenure systems in Nigeria

Week 2: LAND USE ACT OF NIGERIA
Land use Act of 1978:
i. Features of the Act
ii. The need for government to enforce the law etc.

Week 3: ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Role of government in Agricultural production, e.g.,
i. Making of agricultural policies
ii. Drawing of agricultural programmes
iii. Provision of loans and subsidies
iv. Provision of agricultural education etc.

Week 4: FOREST MANAGEMENT
Forest management techniques:
i. Forest regulation
ii. Selective exploration
iii. Deforestation
iv. Regeneration
v. Afforestation
vi. Taungya system

Week 5: DISEASES OF CROPS
Diseases of major crops: e.g.,
i. Cereals – smut, rice blast, leaf rust
ii. Legume – cercosporal leaf spot, rosette
iii. Beverages – cocoa blackpod, coffee leaf rust
iv. Tuber – cassava mosaic virus, bacterial blight etc.

Week 6: SYMPTOMS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CROP DISEASES
i. Symptoms of diseases, e.g., spots, yellowing, rots, wilting, stuntedness etc.
ii. Economic importance, e.g., increase cost of production, reduces quality of crops, reduces farmer's income etc.

Week 7: PREVENTIVE AND CONTROL MEASURES OF DISEASES
i. Cultural methods
ii. Biological methods
iii. Chemical methods

Week 8: IMPORTANT INSECT PESTS OF MAJOR CROPS:
i. Cereal – system borer, army-worm, ear-worm
ii. Legume – pod borer, aphids, sucki bugs,leaf beetle
iii. Beverage – cocoa myrids (capsids)

Week 9: OTHER IMPORTANT PESTS
i. Other important pests:
a. Birds
b. Rodents
c. Man
d. Monkey

ii. Nature of damages done:
a. Destruction of leaves
b. Destruction of tender stems
c. Destruction of root/tubers

Week 10: ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SELECTED PESTS
i. Economic importance of pests:
a. Reduction in quality of crops
b. Reduction in quantity of crops
c. Makes vegetables unattractive and unmarketable etc.

ii. Preventive and control measures:
a. Cultural methods
b. Biological methods
c. Chemical methods

iii. Side effects of the various preventive and control methods:
a. Chemical pollution
b. Poisoning etc.

Week 11: PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS
Morphology of the common grass and legume species of Nigerian pastures.

Week 12: TYPES OF PASTURE
i. Types of pasture:
a. Permanent pasture
b. Rotational pasture
c. Temporary pasture
d. Irrigated pasture

ii. Factors affecting pasture:
a. Establishment
b. Distribution
c. Productivity

iii. Management practices of a pasture land

Week 12 – 13
Revision/Examination

First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 3

Week 1: CROP IMPROVEMENT
a. Meaning and aims of crop improvement
b. Mendelian Laws

Week 2: CROP IMPROVEMENT II
c. Processes of crop improvement
i. Introduction
ii. Selection
iii. Breeding

Week 3: PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT 
a. Susceptibility and resistance to diseases
b. Predisposing factors:
i. Health status of the animals
ii. Environment
iii. Nutrition

Week 4: PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT II
c. Symptoms, effects and mode of transmission, e.g.,
i. Viral – foot and mouth diseases, rinder pest, new castle disease
ii. Bacterial – anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis
iii. Fungal – scabbies, ringworm
iv. Protozoa – trypanosomiasis, coceidiosis

Week 5: PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT III
d. Ecto-Endo parasites, life cycles and mode of transmission
e. Methods of:
i. Preventing – quarantine, inoculation, vaccination, hygiene, breeding.

ii. Control – treatment by a veterinary doctor, destruction.

Week 6: FISH FARMING AND FISHERY REGULATIONS
a. Establishment and maintenance of fish pond

Week 7: FISHERY REGULATIONS
b. Fishery regulations

Week 8: ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
a. Aims and Meaning of animal improvement
b. Methods of animal improvement:
i. Introduction
ii. Selection

Week 9: ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT II
iii. Breeding – inbreeding, line-breeding, cross breeding

Week 10: IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
a. Importance of irrigation and drainage
b. Drainage system: channel, sprinkles, underground etc.

Week 11: IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE II
c. Merits and demerits of each: irrigation and drainage system
d. Problems associated with irrigation:
i. High cost of maintenance
ii. Water availability
iii. Build up of pest and diseases

Week 12 – 13
Revision/Examination

Sep 11, 2018

LITERATURE IN ENGLISH: First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 1 - 3

LITERATURE IN ENGLISH: First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 1 - 3

LITERATURE IN ENGLISH: First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 1 - 3

First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 1

Week 1
The meaning, history and functions of Literature.

Week 2
Types of Literature:
i. Oral Literature.
ii. Written Literature.

Week 3
i Types of Oral Literature.
ii. Categories of Written Literature.

Week 4
The genres of Literature:
i. Prose
ii. Drama
iii. Poetry

Week 5
Genre of Literature: Prose
i. Features
ii. Types
iii. Elements
iv. Other aspects of Prose

Week 6
Genre of Literature: Drama
i. Features
ii. Types
iii. Terms used in Drama

Week 7
Genre of Literature: Poetry
i. Features
ii. Types
iii. Elements

Week 8
Poetic devices

Week 9 – 10
Figures of Speech

Week 11 – 12
Revision/Examination


First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 2

Week 1
Revision on last session's work

Week 2
Short stories/Novelettes based on effects of climate, e.g., floods, depletion of ozone layer, environmental pollution etc.

Week 3
Short stories/Novelettes on any relevant topic or incidence.

Week 4
Folktale: Nigerian and African folktales
i. Meanings and examples.
ii. Features.

Week 5
Popular Myths and Legends: African and non African
i. Meanings and examples.
ii. Features.

Week 6 – 8
Reading of books for the term: Prose

Week 9 – 11
Reading of books for the term: Drama

Week 12 – 13
Revision/Examination.

First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 3

Week 1
Non African folktales

Week 2 – 3
Revision on Figures of speech.

Week 4
Figurative expressions
i. Meaning
ii. Characteristics

Week 5 – 7
Reading of books for the term: Prose

Week 8 – 10
Reading of books for the term: Drama

Week 11 – 12
Revision/Examination.

Sep 10, 2018

MATHEMATICS: First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 1 - 3

MATHEMATICS: First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 1 - 3

MATHEMATICS: First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 1 - 3

First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 1

Week 1: WHOLE NUMBER
i. Count and write in millions, billions and trillions.
ii. Apply the counting, writing and reading of large numbers in everyday life.
iii. Roman system of counting.

Week 2: EXERCISE IN FOUR BASIC OPERATIONS
i. Addition.
ii. Subtraction.
iii. Multiplication.
iv. Division with the use of place value.

Week 3: FRACTIONS
i. Meaning and identification of fractions.
ii. Reduction of fractions to lowest term.
iii. Equivalent fractions, meaning and production.
iv. Arrange given fraction either in ascending or descending order.

Week 4: FRACTIONS II
i. Convert fractions to decimals, decimals to fractions.
ii. Convert fractions to percentages, percentages to fractions.

Week 5: DECIMAL FRACTIONS
i. Meaning of decimal fractions.
ii. Relationship between fractions and decimals.

Week 6: FACTORS AND MULTIPLES
i. Prime numbers and prime factors.
ii. Index forms and common factors.
iii. HCF
iv. LCM

Week 7: ESTIMATION
i. Estimate the dimension and distance within the school.
ii. Estimate the objects.
iii. Statistics of people, e.g., height.
iv. Solve problems on quantitative reasoning in estimation.

Week 8: RANGE OF COST OF VARIOUS ARTICLES
i. Estimation of prices of everyday articles.
ii. Relationship of estimated prices to real prices of the articles.

Week 9: NUMBER BASE 2
i. Counting in base 2.
ii. Addition and subtraction of numbers in base 2.

Week 10: NUMBER BASE 2 (II)
i. Multiplication of numbers in base 2 numerals.
ii. Quantitative reasoning involving problems related to conversion and application of numbers in base 2 numbers.
iii. Convert base 10 numerals to binary numbers.

Week 11: PERCENTAGES
i. Changing percentages to decimals.
ii. Relationship of estimated prices to real prices of articles.
iii. Changing decimals to percentages.

Week 12 – 13: REVISION/EXAMINATION

First Term's Scheme of Work JSS 2

Week 1: LARGE AND SMALL NUMBERS
i. Practical representation of numbers using
a. words only.
b. digits only.
c. mixture of digits and words.
ii. Identification of small numbers/fractions.
iii. Place value of digits.

Week 2: STANDARD FORM OF NUMBERS
i. Expressing whole numbers in standard form.
ii. Expressing decimal numbers in standard form.
iii. Quantitative reasoning (QR) involving standard form.

Week 3: APPROXIMATION
i. Approximation to a required degree of accuracy: tens, hundred, tenth etc.
ii. Approximation to decimal places.
iii. Approximation to significant figures.
iv. Quantitative Reasoning involving approximation.

Week 4: FACTORS AND MULTIPLES
i. Factors of numbers.
ii. Prime factors of numbers not greater than 200.
iii. Expressing numbers as product of its prime factors.
iv. Rules of divisibility.
v. H.C.F of numbers.


Week 5: FACTORS AND MULTIPLES II
i. Multiples of numbers.
ii. Common multiples and LCM.
iii. Squares and square roots.
iv. Finding square roots of numbers by factors.

Week 6: DIRECTED NUMBERS
i. Addition and subtraction of directed numbers.
ii. Multiplication and division of directed numbers.
iii. Simplifying expression with directed numbers.

Week 7: INVERSE IDENTITY
i. Additive inverse.
ii. Multiplicative inverse.
iii. Use of inverse operation solving simple equations.

Week 8: SIMPLE EQUATIONS IN ONE VARIABLE
Solving equations of the form
i. 2x = 8 (ii) 3n - 4 = 5
ii. 3x - 4 = 2x + 1 (iv) 2y + 4
                                 --------
                                    7        = 2

Week 9: GRAPHS
i. Introduction to the Cartesian plane.
ii. Identifying the X and Y axis.
iii. Plotting points on the Cartesian plane (coordinates).
iv. Construct shapes from given coordinates.

Week 10: LINEAR INEQUALITIES
i. Identifying linear inequality in one variable.
ii. Solving linear inequalities.
iii. Graphical representation of solution of linear inequalities.
iv. Word problems involving linear inequalities.

Week 11: EVERYDAY ARITHMETIC
i. Percentage and ratio.
ii. Conversion of fractions to ratio, decimals, percentages.
iii. Quantitative Reasoning on fractions, ratios and percentages.

Week 12: EVERYDAY ARITHMETIC (TRANSACTION IN HOMES AND OFFICES)
i. Profit and loss.
ii. Simple interest.
iii. Discount.
iv. Commission.

Week 13 – 14: REVISION/EXAMINATION.

First Term's Scheme of Work for JSS 3

Week 1: BINARY NUMBERS
i. Addition and subtraction of binary numbers.
ii. Multiplication and division of binary numbers.
iii. Solving Reasoning problems on binary numbers.

Week 2: BINARY NUMBERS II
i. Conversion form base 10 to binary.
ii. Conversion from binary to other bases.
iii. Applying binary numbers as two way classification system using punch card.
iv. Using computer to do simple mathematical calculations.

Week 3: DIRECT AND INVERSE PROPORTION
i. Direct proportion.
ii. Indirect proportion.
iii. Apply direct and inverse proportions to practical problems.

Week 4: RATIONAL AND NON-RATIONAL NUMBERS
i. Identifying rational and non-rational numbers.
ii. Determining the approximate value of some non-rational numbers.
iii. Determining the approximate value of pi.
iv. Finding reciprocals.

Week 5: PLANE FIGURES
Problems in measuration involving:
i. Area of triangles.
ii. Area of parallelograms.
iii. Area of trapezium.
iv. Area of circles and sectors.
v. Word problems involving area.

Week 6: FACTORIZATION OR ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION
Factorization of expressions of the form:
i. ax+ay
ii. 3m+pq+3p+mq etc.
iii. Word problems involving factorization.

Week 7: EQUATIONS INVOLVING FRACTIONS
i. Solving simple equations involving fractions.
ii. Word problems leading to simple equation involving fractions.
iii. Simplifying expressions involving brackets.

Week 8: SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
i. Solution of simultaneous equations by substitution method.
ii. Solution by elimination method.
iii. Applying substitution and elimination method of solving simultaneous equations to real life activities.

Week 9: GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
i. Compiling table of values for simultaneous linear equations.
ii. Solving problems involving simultaneous linear equations in 2 variables graphically.

Week 10: VARIATION
i. Definition of variation.
ii. Direct variation y=kx
iii. Inverse variation y=k/x
iv. Partial variation y=kx+c
v. Joint variation y=kpq, where k is a constant.

Week 11: WORD PROBLEMS
i. Translate word problems into numerical expression.
ii. Interpreting and solving given word problems.

Week 12 – 13: REVISION/EXAMINATION.