How To Calculate Your GPA and CGPA in a 5-Point Grading System

How To Calculate Your GPA and CGPA in a 5-Point Grading System

How To Calculate Your GPA and CGPA
The release of examination results is one of the most important school moments, especially as it concerns the Nigerian academic system and the way in which it works. As a student who is determined and has plans for unfettered academic excellence and a great future cum career in your chosen discipline, you must be interested in how your Grade Point Average (GPA) and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) are calculated per time.

Beyond being interested in the how, you must understand it for yourself so as to follow up closely whenever results show up. This is very crucial because errors of omission have been made in the past as well as other wrong calculations that have passed unnoticed to the detriment of the concerned student(s). In the light of these, every dogged student must be on the watch in his or her own best interest.

On the other hand, knowing how to calculate these vital figures makes you set clear academic goals which are SMART (specific, measurable, accurate, realistic and time-bound). So, follow closely as we take you through this seemingly impenetrable bramble! In a 5-point grading system, A=5, B=4, C=3, D=2, E=1 and F=0.

Having the foregoing in mind, another vital information you must have handy is the unit of each course for the semester as well as the total units of all courses taken in the particular semester under review. The units for various courses depend on the department that offers them. Take for instance, a student of a certain department (let’s call the student Tonye) takes five courses of 3 units each in a semester. That brings us to a total of 15 course units for the semester.

If A=5, B=4, C=3, D=2, E=1 and F=0 and Tonye scores A, B, C, D and E grades respectively in the five courses for the first semester, this means that Tonye gets 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 as the allocated points for the grades obtained. Each point is multiplied by the designated 3 units for each course and the results are added. That is 5x3=15, 4x3=12, 3x3=9, 2x3=6 and 1x3=3; the total of which is 45 points. In order to determine the resultant GPA for the first semester, therefore, Tonye divides the 45 points by 15 (the total course units). This gives him a total of 3.00 as his first semester GPA.

Furthermore, to determine his CPGA at the end of the academic session, Tonye has to do the same calculation with this second semester grades and total course units as earlier explained.

However, for the second semester, given that A=5, B=4, C=3, D=2, E=1 and F=0, Tonye then earns B, C, A, D and A grades respectively in the five courses taken, this means that he gets 4, 3, 5, 2 and 5 respectively as the allocated points for the grades. Each point is multiplied by the designated 3 units for each course and the results are added. That is 4x3=12, 3x3=9, 5x3=15, 2x3=6 and 5x3=15; the total of which is 57 points. In order to determine the resultant GPA for the second semester, therefore, Tonye divides the 57 points by 15 (the total course units). This gives him a total of 3.80 as his second semester GPA.

At the end of the academic year, for Tonye’s CGPA to be determined, he adds the first and second semester GPAs and divides the answer by 2. That means 3.00 + 3.80 = 6.80.

Then, 6.80 / 2 = 3.40 where 3.40 becomes Tonye’s CGPA for the academic year under review.

With this simple formula at each student’s fingertips, just like Tonye, these calculations can be done seamlessly, taking into cognizance all salient factors like the number of courses taken for the semester and the points awarded for each grade obtained, units of each course offered by the department, as well as the total number of units.
How To Fix “Invalid Channel” Error on GOtv

How To Fix “Invalid Channel” Error on GOtv

Aside from the usual E16 error which displays on your screen, “invalid channel” error is an evitable error that frustrates most GOtv subscribers. It is an unexpected error, that is, it just happens. And most times we don't know how to fix it because we can't trace its cause. If you always see this error on your screen anytime you click on a particular channel, especially the one you love to watch, follow the steps below to fix it.

How To Fix “Invalid Channel” Error on GOtv

1. While your GOtv decoder is switched on, click on the MENU button on your GOtv remote.

2. Scroll down to INFORMATION CENTRAL.

3. Click OK. 
How To Fix “Invalid Channel” Error on GOtv

4. Click on the INFO button on your GOtv remote.

5. Click on number 7 on your GOtv remote. Your TV screen will automatically go blank. Don't be scared.
How To Fix “Invalid Channel” Error on GOtv
6. Allow your decoder to reboot.

7. Check the channels that had such error for confirmation afterwards.

8. Enjoy yourself. 
The Difference between Half-brother and Stepbrother

The Difference between Half-brother and Stepbrother

If you think your half-brother is your stepbrother, pay rapt attention. These words are often used interchangeably, especially by second learners of English. But I am happy because this illustrative article will put an end to the misuse of these words.

Your half-brother is not your stepbrother. The son of either your biological father or mother is your half-brother, not your stepbrother.

Your stepbrother is not your parents’ son. If, for example, your father gets married to another woman who already has a son outside, that son is your stepbrother, not your half-brother.

In a nutshell, you and your half-brother are related by blood whereas you and your stepbrother are related by marriage. 
The Difference between “GOAT” and  “Goat” in Sports

The Difference between “GOAT” and “Goat” in Sports

the difference between GOAT and Goat in sports

This lesson will be illustrative for easy comprehension. The difference between “GOAT” (in capital letters) and “Goat” (in small letters) in sports is one that is not known to many. Thus people, especially football fans, abuse these words on a daily basis.

If, for example, Messi is the greatest of all time, say: Messi is the GOAT (all in capital letters). This simply means Messi has performed better than anyone else ever.

GOAT is an acronym for Greatest Of All Time. And it used to describe the person who has performed better than anyone else ever, especially in a sport.

However, if Messi caused his team’s failure or defeat, refer to him as “goat” (in small letters); e.g., Messi’s error made him the goat (not GOAT) of last night’s game.
How To Make Your Writing More Formal

How To Make Your Writing More Formal

How To Make Your Writing More Formal
While communicating with business people, the language you use must be consistently appropriate in style and tone.

The following are the basic features of formal writing:

1. Write all verbs in full
Do not use contracted forms like don’t or can’t. Do not use abbreviations such as info (for information) and asap (for as soon as possible).

2. Limit the use of passive voice
However, there are some situations where passive verb forms are preferred to active forms. For example, active verb forms used with the first person singular are not considered appropriate in formal or academic writing. 

Write ‘A copy of the document will be mailed to you as soon as possible’ instead of ‘I will mail you a copy of the document asap.’

3. Watch your vocabulary
Certain words are considered informal. Examples are: fix, begin, start, OK, thanks etc. Avoid them in formal writing. Instead use words like repair (for fix), commence (for start/begin), in order/all right (for OK) and thank you (for thanks).

4. Avoid informal intensifiers like really and so
Instead use more sophisticated ones such as extremely, highly, entirely etc.

5. Limit the use of phrasal verbs
As far as possible avoid using them. But if that is not possible, limit their use. It is usually possible to express the same idea using standard verb 
forms.

6. Certain discourse markers are considered informal
Avoid using them. For example, write ‘incidentally’ instead of ‘by the way.’

7. Do not leave out words
Ellipsis is not acceptable in formal writing. Write ‘I hope to see you soon’ instead of ‘Hope to see you soon.’

© Joseph Baidoo
Joseph Baidoo is a Ghanaian and is popularly known on social media as Misty Joe.
Joseph Baidoo
Joseph Baidoo
The Difference between PREGNANT FOR, PREGNANT BY and PREGNANT WITH

The Difference between PREGNANT FOR, PREGNANT BY and PREGNANT WITH

If your husband gets you pregnant, you are pregnant BY your husband, not FOR your husband.

Use “PREGNANT FOR” to show time frame, e.g., She has been trying to get pregnant FOR a year now.
The Difference between PREGNANT FOR, PREGNANT BY and PREGNANT WITH
On the other hand, use “PREGNANT WITH” to tell that you have a child developing in your uterus, e.g., I am pregnant WITH a child.
How To Answer WOULD YOU MIND and WOULD YOU CARE Questions

How To Answer WOULD YOU MIND and WOULD YOU CARE Questions

Non-native speakers of English find it difficult to give correct answers to WOULD YOU MIND and WOULD YOU CARE questions. They say YES when they are supposed to say NO, and vice versa; thus they lose out on so many profitable things. This article is written to solve such problem as it, in simple terms, explains the difference between “Would you mind?” and “Would you care?”
  
Q1: Would you mind if I brought Tammy to the party?

If you want the person to bring Tammy to the party, say “No, I wouldn't (mind).” If you say YES, it means you don't want Tammy to attend the party.
How To Answer WOULD YOU MIND and WOULD YOU CARE Questions


Q2: Would you care for a drink?

This part is very simple. YES means you want a drink. And NO means you don't want a drink.

In a nutshell, when you use “MIND,” NO means YES. But when you use “CARE,“ YES means YES.
How To Know You Have a COVENANT with POVERTY

How To Know You Have a COVENANT with POVERTY

1. When money comes, you think of spending, not investing.

2. The total value of your clothes is more than the total value of your bank account.

3. You take loans to buy consumables, not to make investments.

4. In the last year, you never read a book, but you watched multiple movies.

5. You struggled to buy the latest iPhone, but won’t even think of buying a piece of land of equal price.

6. You know the top 10 goal scores in the EPL, but you don’t know the top 10 gainers in the stock exchange.

7. You know the vital statistics of every beautiful girl/handsome guy in your neighbourhood, but you don’t know the vital areas of growth in the economy.

© Reno Omokri 
Warning Signs You Should Not Marry Her

Warning Signs You Should Not Marry Her

1. She requires maintenance (you owe ONLY you wife maintenance).

2. Her phone, clothes and jewellery cost more than your annual pay.

3. She’s good at slaying and bad at praying.

4. She doesn’t encourage you to save.
Warning Signs You Should Not Marry Her

5. Your bank balance has been steadily reducing since you met her.

6. She encourages/suggests that you eat out regularly.

7. All her friends are just like her-high maintenance, low or no income.

8. She makes demands, but does not make contributions.

© Reno Omokri 
BIOLOGY: Second Term’s Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

BIOLOGY: Second Term’s Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

Below is second term's Biology scheme of work for Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) 1 – 3.
BIOLOGY: Second Term’s Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 1

Week 1: Tissue and Supporting System 
I. Definition of supporting and systems
II. Types of skeleton: Hydrostatic skeleton, Exo (ecto) skeleton, Endo Skeleton
III. Skeletal materials:  Chitin, cartilage, and bone
IV. Functions of supporting tissues in plants and animals – protection, support, locomotion, strength, rigidity, resistance to forces of wind and water 

Week 2: Vertebrate Skeleton 
I. Axial skeleton – The Skull and vertebral column
II. Appendicular skeleton – The limbs, sternum and ribs, limb girdle 

Week 3: Supporting Tissue in Plants
I. Types of supporting tissue in plants 
II. Location of supporting tissue in plants
III. Structures and components of supporting tissues in plants, e.g., collenchymas, paranchyma, xylem, phloem, etc.

Week 4: Nutrition in Animals 
I. Food substances – classes with examples
II. Concept of balanced diet and its importance 
III. Food test

B. Mode of Nutrition 
I. Types of heterotrophic nutrition – holozoic, saprophytic and parasite nutrition 
II. Feeding mechanism in holozoic organisms – filter feeding, fluid feeding and deposit feeding 

Week 5: Mammalian Teeth 
I. Forms – milk and permanent teeth
II. Types – Incisors, canines, permolar and molar
III. Structures of a tooth (canine/molar)
IV. Dental formular and adaption – Herbivores,  carnivores and omnivores 

B. Enzymes 
I. Definition of enzymes
II. Characteristics of enzymes
III. Types of digestive enzymes – sources, location, substance acted upon and effect/products 
IV. Importance/Functions of enzymes 

Week 6: Basic Ecological Concepts 
I. Components of an ecosystem 
– Biotic (living) and Abiotic (non-living) component 
– Aquatic and terrestrial component 

II. Definitions of common terms in ecological studies: environment, population, biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, nicher habitat, biotic, community, ecosystem 

III. Local communities (biomes) – Nigeria ecological region (sahel, sudan, guinea savanna, tropical forest, swamp forest)

IV. Major biomes of the world: Tropical forest, savanna, desert, shrub, apro – alphine and swamps 

Week 7: Population Studies by Sampling Method 
I. Population size, population dominance, population density
II. Factors affecting population
III. Ecological factors affecting aquatic and terrestrial habitat
IV. Importance of ecological factors to population of plant and animals 

Week 8: Ecological Factors 
I. Relationship between soil types and water holding effects of soil on vegetation 
II. Simple measurement of ecological factors and measuring instrument, e.g., physical factors and edaphic factors 

Week 9: Functioning Ecosystem 
I. Definitions of autotrophy and heterotrophy 
II. Definition of terms – Producer, consumers, aquatic and terrestrial 
III. Examples of producers and consumers 

Week 10: Trophic Levels 
I. Definition of food chain and food web
II. Non-cycle nature of energy transfer
III. Nutrient movement (energy flow) in aquatic and terrestrial habitat
IV. Pyramid of number and energy 
V. Nature of energy flow in food chain and food web

Week 11 – 12: Revision/Examination 

ALSO SEE: Biology: Third Term's Scheme of Work SSS 1 and 2

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 2

Week 1: Conservation of Natural Resources
I. Definition 
II. Needs or importance of conservation 
III. Methods or ways of consenting natural resources (Legislation Education, Erection of packs, and reserves) 
IV. Agencies responsible for conservation 
V. Problems associated with conservation 

Week 2: Pest and Diseases of Crop
I. Definition of pest
II. Classification of pest by the pest of the plants they attack, e.g., stem borers, root feeders, leaf feeder, plants and seed feeder)
III. The animal types: Invertebrates, e.g., nematodes, anthropode, locust etc.); Vertebrate pests (birds), e.g., gull, weaver bird, mammal (e.g., rodent monkey)

Week 3: Pest and Diseases of Crop 
I. Life cycle and control of pest
II. Disease caused by pest and their agents, e.g., viral disease, bacterial diseases, and fungi disease
III. Methods of pest diseases control – Physical, Biological and Chemical methods 

Week 4: Reproductive System in Fish and Reptiles 
I. Structures of male and female reproductive organs 
II. Parts and functions of male and female reproductive organs of fish and reptiles 
III. Structure of male and female gametes 
IV. Differences between male and female reproductive organs of fish and reptiles 

Week 5: Reproductive System in Bird and Mammals
I. Structures of male and female reproductive system 
II. Parts and functions of male and female reproductive system 
III. Structures and differences of male and female gametes 
IV. Differences between male and female reproductive organs


Week 6: Reproductive System in Bird and Mammals II
I. Structural differences in the egg of vertebrates 
II. Tabulation and comparison of reproduction in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals 

B. Reproductive System in Plants 
I. Structure and function of the floral parts 
II. Arrangement of the major reproductive parts (whorls) 

Week 7: Reproductive System in Plants II 
I. Types of flower
II. Types of ovaries 
III. Important terms often used to study flowers, e.g., bisexuals, mono-sexual, inflorescence, regular incomplete etc.

Week 8: Pollination in Plants 
I. Definition and types
II. Features of self pollinated flowers
III. Features of cross pollinated flowers
IV. Agents of pollination – water, wind, insect, animals

Week 9: Regulation of Internal Environment 
I. Definition of homeostasis 
II. Organs and processes involved in homeostasis 
III. The structure, function and disease of kidney
IV. Effects of kidney diseases and their possible remedies 

Week 10: The Liver 
I. The structure, function and diseases of liver 
II. Effects of liver diseases and remedies 
III. Processes and metabolism of deamination, and metabolism of carbohydrate and lepids 

Week 11: Plant Hormones 
I. Definition and types 
II. Functions of the plant hormones 
III. Effects of axin on lateral development, leaf fall and initiation of adventious roots 
IV. Modern application of axin and other hormones, and with reference to early flowing, crop harvest and weed control etc.

Week 12 – 13: Revision/Examination 

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 3

Week 1: Revision 
I. Revision of all relevant topics in national examination 
II. Revision of past WAEC, NECO and UTME questions 

Week 2: Revision on Practicals 
Revision of past practical questions alternative to practical 

Week 3 – 4: General revision/Examination