February 18, 2020

The Difference between PREGNANT FOR, PREGNANT BY and PREGNANT WITH

The Difference between PREGNANT FOR, PREGNANT BY and PREGNANT WITH

If your husband gets you pregnant, you are pregnant BY your husband, not FOR your husband.

Use “PREGNANT FOR” to show time frame, e.g., She has been trying to get pregnant FOR a year now.
The Difference between PREGNANT FOR, PREGNANT BY and PREGNANT WITH
On the other hand, use “PREGNANT WITH” to tell that you have a child developing in your uterus, e.g., I am pregnant WITH a child.

February 09, 2020

How To Answer WOULD YOU MIND and WOULD YOU CARE Questions

How To Answer WOULD YOU MIND and WOULD YOU CARE Questions

Non-native speakers of English find it difficult to give correct answers to WOULD YOU MIND and WOULD YOU CARE questions. They say YES when they are supposed to say NO, and vice versa; thus they lose out on so many profitable things. This article is written to solve such problem as it, in simple terms, explains the difference between “Would you mind?” and “Would you care?”
  
Q1: Would you mind if I brought Tammy to the party?

If you want the person to bring Tammy to the party, say “No, I wouldn't (mind).” If you say YES, it means you don't want Tammy to attend the party.
How To Answer WOULD YOU MIND and WOULD YOU CARE Questions


Q2: Would you care for a drink?

This part is very simple. YES means you want a drink. And NO means you don't want a drink.

In a nutshell, when you use “MIND,” NO means YES. But when you use “CARE,“ YES means YES.
How To Know You Have a COVENANT with POVERTY

How To Know You Have a COVENANT with POVERTY


1. When money comes, you think of spending, not investing.

2. The total value of your clothes is more than the total value of your bank account.

3. You take loans to buy consumables, not to make investments.

4. In the last year, you never read a book, but you watched multiple movies.

5. You struggled to buy the latest iPhone, but won’t even think of buying a piece of land of equal price.

6. You know the top 10 goal scores in the EPL, but you don’t know the top 10 gainers in the stock exchange.

7. You know the vital statistics of every beautiful girl/handsome guy in your neighbourhood, but you don’t know the vital areas of growth in the economy.

© Reno Omokri 
Warning Signs You Should Not Marry Her

Warning Signs You Should Not Marry Her

1. She requires maintenance (you owe ONLY you wife maintenance).

2. Her phone, clothes and jewellery cost more than your annual pay.

3. She’s good at slaying and bad at praying.

4. She doesn’t encourage you to save.
Warning Signs You Should Not Marry Her

5. Your bank balance has been steadily reducing since you met her.

6. She encourages/suggests that you eat out regularly.

7. All her friends are just like her-high maintenance, low or no income.

8. She makes demands, but does not make contributions.

© Reno Omokri 

January 29, 2020

BIOLOGY: Second Term’s Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

BIOLOGY: Second Term’s Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

Below is second term's Biology scheme of work for Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) 1 – 3.
BIOLOGY: Second Term’s Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 1

Week 1: Tissue and Supporting System 
I. Definition of supporting and systems
II. Types of skeleton: Hydrostatic skeleton, Exo (ecto) skeleton, Endo Skeleton
III. Skeletal materials:  Chitin, cartilage, and bone
IV. Functions of supporting tissues in plants and animals – protection, support, locomotion, strength, rigidity, resistance to forces of wind and water 

Week 2: Vertebrate Skeleton 
I. Axial skeleton – The Skull and vertebral column
II. Appendicular skeleton – The limbs, sternum and ribs, limb girdle 

Week 3: Supporting Tissue in Plants
I. Types of supporting tissue in plants 
II. Location of supporting tissue in plants
III. Structures and components of supporting tissues in plants, e.g., collenchymas, paranchyma, xylem, phloem, etc.

Week 4: Nutrition in Animals 
I. Food substances – classes with examples
II. Concept of balanced diet and its importance 
III. Food test

B. Mode of Nutrition 
I. Types of heterotrophic nutrition – holozoic, saprophytic and parasite nutrition 
II. Feeding mechanism in holozoic organisms – filter feeding, fluid feeding and deposit feeding 

Week 5: Mammalian Teeth 
I. Forms – milk and permanent teeth
II. Types – Incisors, canines, permolar and molar
III. Structures of a tooth (canine/molar)
IV. Dental formular and adaption – Herbivores,  carnivores and omnivores 

B. Enzymes 
I. Definition of enzymes
II. Characteristics of enzymes
III. Types of digestive enzymes – sources, location, substance acted upon and effect/products 
IV. Importance/Functions of enzymes 

Week 6: Basic Ecological Concepts 
I. Components of an ecosystem 
– Biotic (living) and Abiotic (non-living) component 
– Aquatic and terrestrial component 

II. Definitions of common terms in ecological studies: environment, population, biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, nicher habitat, biotic, community, ecosystem 

III. Local communities (biomes) – Nigeria ecological region (sahel, sudan, guinea savanna, tropical forest, swamp forest)

IV. Major biomes of the world: Tropical forest, savanna, desert, shrub, apro – alphine and swamps 

Week 7: Population Studies by Sampling Method 
I. Population size, population dominance, population density
II. Factors affecting population
III. Ecological factors affecting aquatic and terrestrial habitat
IV. Importance of ecological factors to population of plant and animals 

Week 8: Ecological Factors 
I. Relationship between soil types and water holding effects of soil on vegetation 
II. Simple measurement of ecological factors and measuring instrument, e.g., physical factors and edaphic factors 

Week 9: Functioning Ecosystem 
I. Definitions of autotrophy and heterotrophy 
II. Definition of terms – Producer, consumers, aquatic and terrestrial 
III. Examples of producers and consumers 

Week 10: Trophic Levels 
I. Definition of food chain and food web
II. Non-cycle nature of energy transfer
III. Nutrient movement (energy flow) in aquatic and terrestrial habitat
IV. Pyramid of number and energy 
V. Nature of energy flow in food chain and food web

Week 11 – 12: Revision/Examination 

ALSO SEE: Biology: Third Term's Scheme of Work SSS 1 and 2

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 2

Week 1: Conservation of Natural Resources
I. Definition 
II. Needs or importance of conservation 
III. Methods or ways of consenting natural resources (Legislation Education, Erection of packs, and reserves) 
IV. Agencies responsible for conservation 
V. Problems associated with conservation 

Week 2: Pest and Diseases of Crop
I. Definition of pest
II. Classification of pest by the pest of the plants they attack, e.g., stem borers, root feeders, leaf feeder, plants and seed feeder)
III. The animal types: Invertebrates, e.g., nematodes, anthropode, locust etc.); Vertebrate pests (birds), e.g., gull, weaver bird, mammal (e.g., rodent monkey)

Week 3: Pest and Diseases of Crop 
I. Life cycle and control of pest
II. Disease caused by pest and their agents, e.g., viral disease, bacterial diseases, and fungi disease
III. Methods of pest diseases control – Physical, Biological and Chemical methods 

Week 4: Reproductive System in Fish and Reptiles 
I. Structures of male and female reproductive organs 
II. Parts and functions of male and female reproductive organs of fish and reptiles 
III. Structure of male and female gametes 
IV. Differences between male and female reproductive organs of fish and reptiles 

Week 5: Reproductive System in Bird and Mammals
I. Structures of male and female reproductive system 
II. Parts and functions of male and female reproductive system 
III. Structures and differences of male and female gametes 
IV. Differences between male and female reproductive organs


Week 6: Reproductive System in Bird and Mammals II
I. Structural differences in the egg of vertebrates 
II. Tabulation and comparison of reproduction in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals 

B. Reproductive System in Plants 
I. Structure and function of the floral parts 
II. Arrangement of the major reproductive parts (whorls) 

Week 7: Reproductive System in Plants II 
I. Types of flower
II. Types of ovaries 
III. Important terms often used to study flowers, e.g., bisexuals, mono-sexual, inflorescence, regular incomplete etc.

Week 8: Pollination in Plants 
I. Definition and types
II. Features of self pollinated flowers
III. Features of cross pollinated flowers
IV. Agents of pollination – water, wind, insect, animals

Week 9: Regulation of Internal Environment 
I. Definition of homeostasis 
II. Organs and processes involved in homeostasis 
III. The structure, function and disease of kidney
IV. Effects of kidney diseases and their possible remedies 

Week 10: The Liver 
I. The structure, function and diseases of liver 
II. Effects of liver diseases and remedies 
III. Processes and metabolism of deamination, and metabolism of carbohydrate and lepids 

Week 11: Plant Hormones 
I. Definition and types 
II. Functions of the plant hormones 
III. Effects of axin on lateral development, leaf fall and initiation of adventious roots 
IV. Modern application of axin and other hormones, and with reference to early flowing, crop harvest and weed control etc.

Week 12 – 13: Revision/Examination 

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 3

Week 1: Revision 
I. Revision of all relevant topics in national examination 
II. Revision of past WAEC, NECO and UTME questions 

Week 2: Revision on Practicals 
Revision of past practical questions alternative to practical 

Week 3 – 4: General revision/Examination 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: Second Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: Second Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

Below is second term's Agricultural Science scheme of work for Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) 1 – 3.
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: Second Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 1

Week 1: Anatomy and Physiology
I. Meaning of anatomy and physiology
II. Systems of the body:
– Digestive (monogastric and ruminant)
– Reproductive system 

Week 2: Systems of the Body of Farm Animals
Systems of the body:
– Circulatory system
– Respiratory system 
– Nervous system

Week 3: Reproduction in Farm Animals 
I. Oestrus cycle with emphasis on heat period 
II. Mating in farm animals 
III.Gestation period 
IV. Parturition 
V. Lactation and colostrums 

Week 4: Egg Formation in Poultry 
Processes of egg formation in poultry

Week 5: Role of Hormones in Reproduction 
The role of hormones in reproduction

Week 6: Livestock Management 
Livestock management techniques:
– Good housing 
– Feeding 

Week 7: Livestock Management 
Livestock management techniques:
– Hygiene
– Finishing 

Week 8: Husbandry of Pulses (Groundnut, Cowpea)
– Method of propagation
– Climatic and soil requirements
– Pre-planting and planting operations
– Manuring and fertilizer requirements
– Harvesting, processing and storage 

Week 9: Husbandry of Fibre Crops, e.g.,Cotton 
– Method of propagation
– Climatic and soil requirements
– Pre-planting and planting operations
– Manuring and fertilizer requirements
– Harvesting, processing and storage of fibre

Week 10: Rock Formation
I. Definition of rocks
II. Rock types: Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic 
III. Rock formation processes/soil formation 

Week 11: Practical 
Identification of the various rock types

Week 12 – 13: Revision/Examination

ALSO SEE: Agricultural Science: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 -- 3

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 2

Week 1: Range Management and Improvement 
I. Definition of rangeland
II. Importance of rangeland 
III. Characteristics of rangeland

Week 2: Rangeland Improvement 
Methods of rangeland improvement:
– Controlled stocking 
– Rotational grazing 
– Use Fertilizers 
– Reseeding etc.

Week 3: Animal Nutrition 
I. Definition and meaning of nutrition 
II. Sources and functions of nutrients, e.g., carbohydrates, data, minerals, vitamins, water and proteins


Week 4: Rations
I. Types of ration: balanced ration etc.
II. Malnutrition 
III. Effects of malnutrition 

Week 5: Environmental Factors Affecting Agricultural Production 
Climatic factors: rainfall, temperature, light, and wind 

Week 6: Biotic Factors Affecting Agricultural Production 
Biotic Factors: predator, parasites, soil micro organisms, pests and disease organisms etc.

Week 7: Edaphic Factors Affecting Agricultural Production 
Edaphic Factors: Soil types, soil PH, soil texture etc.

Week 8: Plant Nutrients 
Definition of micro and macro nutrients, functions and deficiency symptoms 

Week 9: Factors Influencing Availability of Nutrients 
Factors: Soil PH, excess of other nutrients, leaching, crop removal, oxidation etc.

Week 10: Methods of Replenishing Plant Nutrients in the Soil 
Methods of replenishing plant nutrients:
– Rotational cropping 
– Organic manuring
– Inorganic manuring 
– Fallowing 
– Liming
– Cover cropping etc.

Week 11: Nutrients Cycles 
I. Nitrogen cycle
II. Carbon cycle
III. Water cycle 

Week 12: Effects of Farming Practices on the Soil
Farming practices and the soil effects:
– Bush burning 
– Over-grazing 
– Clean clearing 
– Stumping 
– Fertilizer application 
– Inorganic manuring etc.

Week 13 – 14: Revision/Examination 

SECOND TERM’S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 3

Week 1: Marketing of Agricultural Produce 
I. Meaning and importance of marketing 
II. Marketing agents:
a. Marketing boards 

Week 2: Marketing of Agricultural Produce II
I. Marketing agents:
b. Cooperative societies 
c. Middlemen– wholesalers, retailers
d. Producers etc.

Week 3: Agricultural Extension 
I. Agricultural extension as a teaching and learning process
II. Agricultural extension programmes, e.g., ADP
III. Diffusion of new ideas and techniques  (innovations) to farmers 

Week 4 – 5: Revision/Examination 

January 07, 2020

The Reason Why “NICE” Is the Most Useless Word in the English Dictionary

The Reason Why “NICE” Is the Most Useless Word in the English Dictionary

The Reason Why “NICE” Is the Most Useless Word in the English Dictionary

The most useless word in the English dictionary is NICE. What is NICE? An ambiguous word that makes you want to please people and displease yourself. NICENESS is no virtue. NICE people come last! No one MARRIES, VOTES for, INVESTS in or PROMOTES a NICE guy. More than education, more than connection, more than luck, clarity of purpose is what you need to be successful. And you can't have clarity if you are nice. 


There are 9 fruit of the Spirit and none of them is niceness. Let me give an example. It is nice to be handsome, but it’s more profitable to be successful. The attractiveness of money does not depend on its looks, but on the value it has. The Zimbabwean dollar is beautiful but useless. Have value and you will be attractive.

© Reno Omokri 
Who Should be Called a "Dr"? A Physician or a PhD?

Who Should be Called a "Dr"? A Physician or a PhD?

There was an interesting Facebook conversation among a group of Nigerians last week on who, between medical doctors and PhDs, are more deserving to be addressed as "Dr." I've written about this before, so let me share my thoughts once again with people for whom this sort of thing is interesting.
Who Should be Called a "Dr"? A Physician or a PhD?

By convention, both medical doctors and PhDs can prefix “Dr.” to their names. But, here, there's a clash between etymology (origin and development of words) and pragmatics (how words are actually used by speakers of a language). 

The word “doctor” was historically used for teachers because it’s derived from the Latin verb docēre, which means “to teach.”  So “doctor of philosophy” meant “teacher of philosophy,” where “philosophy” meant what we now know as the sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities, that is, disciplines other than law, medicine, and theology which, as I showed two weeks ago, used to be called the "learned professions."

To insist that words must mean what they always meant from the beginning is called etymological fallacy. Language doesn't work that way.

In contemporary uses, people tend to first think of medical doctors before PhDs when the term “doctor” is mentioned. For instance, when I visited Nigeria after completing my PhD years ago, several of my mother’s friends came to ask that I give them medicines for all sorts of illnesses. When they heard that I had become a “doctor,” they assumed that I was a medical doctor.


I will never forget my mother’s response to her friends. She said, “This doctor doesn’t treat illnesses; he cures ignorance.” She said this even when she didn’t know that, etymologically, “doctor” meant one who teaches, in other  words, one who cures ignorance, although I think it’s a bit arrogant to assume that anyone one person, however knowledgeable, can cure all ignorance—or that  you need a doctorate to cure ignorance.

But the point is that modern usage associates “Dr.” more with medical practitioners than it does with PhDs.

That’s why the New York Times style guide reserves “Dr.” only for medical doctors, and uses “Mr.” for doctoral degree holders. If the doctoral degree holder’s qualification is relevant to the story, the paper would write something like, “Mr. Smith, who has a doctorate in physics, said…” 

Other American newspapers suffix “PhD” to the names of doctoral degree holders in news reports, as in, “John Smith, Ph.D., said it was unwise to let that happen.”

© Farooq Kperogi

December 30, 2019

Has Your Bank Debited Your Account for a Failed Transaction? Do This to Get a Refund in Few Minutes

Has Your Bank Debited Your Account for a Failed Transaction? Do This to Get a Refund in Few Minutes

I don't know who needs to see this, but if you have a failed transaction/transaction error with any Nigerian bank and it's taking more than normal to get your money back, here's all you need to do:

1. Send a mail to Central Bank's Consumer Protection Department (CPD) via the email address cpd@cbn.gov.ng with all the relevant details, and COPY (Cc) your bank's customer care email. See the image below.
Has Your Bank Debited Your Account for a Failed Transaction? Do This to Get a Refund in Few Minutes
2. Add a suitable subject to your email, e.g., NO REFUND FOR A FAILED TRANSACTION.

3. In the COMPOSE EMAIL box, state your complaint. Tell Central Bank what has really happened.

4. Endeavour to attach pictures, texts, or any relevant document as evidence.

5. State categorically that you are aware that there's an extra ₦10,000 fine to be paid to you as penalty and damages for the "stress and inconvenience" caused by your bank.

6. Click on the send button.

7. Take a chill pill and watch your bank reverse your money in 30 minutes.

See a testimony below.