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5 Simple Ways To Detect Counterfeit Naira Notes

Fraudsters have recently begun to create and use fake currencies to make deposits and payments. This new trend of using counterfeit Naira notes has resulted in significant losses for some POS business owners. 
5 Simple Ways To Detect Counterfeit Naira Notes
Naira Notes
The production of counterfeit notes by fraudsters is a serious issue; thus it is advisable POS business owners or banking agents be on the lookout for this new illegal behaviour. Fake notes can be printed in smaller denominations, such as N50, N100, and N200, as well as big denominations such as N500, N1000. Despite the fact that this illegal skill appears to be improving with each passing day, there is no need to be worried as these notes can still be detected with ease. 


Here's a quick reference guide to identifying genuine Nigerian naira notes:

1. Check the Quality and Texture 
Genuine naira notes are created from a particular sort of paper whilst fake naira notes are usually created from ordinary paper. Before accepting Naira notes as payment for a service, it is critical to inspect their quality and texture.

2. Soak in Water and Other Liquid 
If you have any doubts about a note you've received, soak it in water or fuel and gently brush it with your thumb. If the money is counterfeit, the colour will fade quickly. The colour of a genuine Naira note will not wash off because the note is water-resistant.


3. Check the Ribbon or Silver Thread 
A silver ribbon runs from the top to the bottom of every genuine naira note. The silver thread may be felt on actual notes, and it can even be seen on old naira notes. In fake notes, however, something that appears to be a thread is actually only paint. Scratching that ribbon will easily remove it.
4. Check the Gold Foil 
On the right side of the N1000 note, just beside the CBN governor's signature, there is a gold foil. The gold foil on a fake note peels off when scratched whereas the gold foil on a genuine note does not peel.
5. Use Mercury Bulbs
Other aspects of the Naira note are not visible with the naked eye. These features can only be seen on real naira notes and with certain pieces of equipment. You can tell the difference between fake and authentic notes by using mercury lights.

If a genuine N1000 note is exposed to the rays of a mercury bulb, it will glow with a glowing 1000 (in numerals) printed across it. Smaller denominations are treated the same way.
It's also worth noting that the use of counterfeit notes is illegal in Nigeria, according to the country's constitution. It makes no difference whether you are aware or not because ignorance is not an excuse.

Be vigilant; don't be a prey in the hands of these hungry fraudsters!

LETTER WRITING: How To Write Informal /Friendly /Personal Letters

Letter writing plays a crucial role in our daily lives. We communicate our feelings, ideas, thoughts and facts through letter writing. This is especially done in the world of business where a lot of interactions are made through letter writing. It is, therefore, no wonder that we students are taught letter writing and examined on it as well.

Generally, there are two types of letters.

✅ Friendly or Personal letters, and this includes Semi-formal letters.

✅ Official/Formal /Business letters

Click HERE to read how to write official letters. 

Informal letters are written to people who are quite close to us, especially acquaintance of one's own age groups or contemporaries. The communication we do on paper to our friends, siblings, wives, husbands, aunts, uncles, pen-pals, parents etc. all come under this type of letter writing.

PARTS OF INFORMAL/ FRIENDLY/PERSONAL LETTERS

✅ The writer's address

✅Date of writing

✅ Salutation

✅ Introduction

✅Main body

✅ Conclusion

✅ Subscription (including writer's first name only)
WRITER'S ADDRESS AND DATE
 
The address of the writer should be on the top right-hand corner of your answer sheet.

🔥The address can be slanted (indented) or straight (block). 

🔥It may be punctuated or not punctuated.

🔥Under no circumstance that your name should appear at the position of the address.

Examples

A Punctuated and Block Address

Asanteman Senior High,
P. O Box 3124,
Suame, Kumasi.

14th January 2021.

An Unpuntuated and Indented/Slanted Address

Asanteman Senior High School
    P. O. Box 3124
         Suame, Kumasi

14th January,2021.

Note: THE POSITION OF THE DATE SHOULD MATCH THAT OF THE FIRST LETTER OF THE ADDRESS. ALSO, YOU ARE TO PUNCTUATE THE DATE.

Both types (punctuated and unpunctuated ) are accepted in examination. However, they must not be mixed, especially in the case of Formal letters when you may need two addresses. Note how the date is written, the th or nd should be on the line; e.g., 14th, and not hanged or suspended. Again, the date can be written in these ways: 14-01-21 or 14 /01/21.

SALUTATION
This is another Crucial feature or convention in letter writing. The salutation or the open greeting vary from a type of letter to another. For close friends you use: Dear or Hello or Hi followed by the persons first name.

 Examples:

🔥Dear Misty, or Hello Misty,

🔥Dear Pius, or Hello Pius,

🔥 Dear Tunchi, or Hello Tunch,

🔥You can use "My dear" instead of Dear alone if you want to show more affection or closeness to the person.

Note: It should be noted that if you use a lower initial letter d for dear, the name which follows should also use initial lower letters. It is the same with the use of capital D for Dear.

Examples:

Dear Eric,

Hello Mensah,

Hi Agabus,

Hello Jefflyna,

Avoid these ones:

Dear brother,

Hi sister,

My dear Brother,

INTRODUCTION AS A FEATURE
You should ensure that the introduction to your letter is an interesting or a catchy one which can arouse a reader's or marker's interest naturally. An introduction may carry some pleasantries and often may include the following:

🔥 expression of gratitude/appreciation for a gift or a piece of advice, friendship, assistance, support etc.

🔥 expression of congratulations on one’s achievement.

🔥 artistically expressing surprise at some developments. 

🔥 creating humour.

Generally, there are two ways you can use to introduce letters:

🔥 showing/ acknowledging the receipt of a letter from your friend, the recipient. This is normally done in replying to a letter.

🔥you take or assume the position of writing to your friend – recipient as a first-timer.

How To Acknowledge the Receipt of a Letter

🔥Hello Elsa,
                      I received your interesting and thought-provoking letter about three weeks ago. It was a great delight to have heard from you after such a long break of correspondence. Please accept my congratulations on your election as a day head girl of Asanteman Senior High School.

🔥Hi Misty,
                With much delightedness, I write to acknowledge the receipt of your heart-warming as well as inspiring letter dated 17th April 2021. How are you faring at your current school? I hope you are doing well?

Introducing a Letter Which Is Not a Reply To a Previous One

🔥 Hi Mawu,
                      I'm delighted and pleased to get such a glorious chance to write this maiden letter. It is to make you aware that my parents have succeeded in convincing me to attend Asanteman Senior High School. How is everybody doing?

🔥 Hello Stallone,
                        The pleasure is an unmeasurable one for the beautiful opportunity to write to you for the first time. This letter is purposed to inform you that I have won an educational scholarship to study Medicine in Germany.

THE BODY OF YOUR ESSAY
✅This happens to be the most important part of your composition.

✅The body of a letter or an essay presents the reader or the examiner with the details of what your paper contains.

✅The ideas you express should be arranged in paragraphs.

✅The expression of your views must be good, straight forward and meaningful, taking care of tenses, spellings, grammar and punctuation.

✅ A point must be developed in one paragraph, by stating the topic sentence and developing it.

✅ The words you put together should sound conversational/chatty, and be contracted forms, popular local forms should be used.

✅ CONCLUSION OF AN INFORMAL LETTER
It is imperative to conclude your letter or essay always. A good conclusion will make the recipients feel like wishing to read more from you. A good conclusion makes it more complete and fascinating.

The following are some ways you may write your conclusion:

1. Misty Joe, I will like to end here with the warmest greetings to you. Please extend my regards to your lovely parents. Do not forget that you have promised to reply to my letters frequently.

2. Leticia, I sincerely believe that enough has been said and you are smiling pleasantly at what you have heard. Please let the sleeping dogs lie. Hoping to hear from you soon and please accept my love.

3. Bideen Aristotle, best regards to you from all of us especially, Mum and Dad. Please do stay safe clean, and we'll during this COVID-19 era. The entire family is eagerly waiting to read from you, so make sure you write to me as soon as possible.

4. Dr Boss Willis, my best regards to you and all your nice friends around. Remember, we had an agreement to celebrate the upcoming birthday at KFC, Bekwai Roundabout. Is there any help I can give you? Let me hear from you soon.

THE SUBSCRIPTION
The following are some forms of subscriptions for informal letters.

✅ Yours affectionately,
✅Your loving brother,
✅Your affectionate son,
✅Yours sincerely,

Note: On no account should you end an informal letter with the subscription, Yours faithfully since it is strictly reserved for Formal letters.

Avoid These Subscriptions:

Your lovingly brother,❌
Your loving brother,✅

Your's sincerely,❌
Yours sincerely,✅

Yours loving son,❌
Your loving son,✅

Yours truely,❌
Yours truly,✅

NAME OF WRITER
You should always write your first name under the subscription.
1. Yours affectionately,
Jeffery.✅

2. Your loving brother,
Misty.✅

3. Yours truly,
Sanou.✅

© Misty Joe

How To Write Formal /Official /Business Letters

Formal letters are also known as business or official letters. They are usually written to public organizations, government offices, the press, business firms and letters of application for employment.

The language and tone of formal letters are supposed to be formal as well as impersonal or non -personal. This is because the letter is being sent to an official position.

PARTS OF FORMAL/ OFFICIAL/ BUSINESS LETTERS

✅ ADDRESS OF THE WRITER AND DATE.
✅ ADDRESS OF THE RECIPIENT
✅A FORMAL SALUTATION
✅ TITLE/HEADING
✅INTRODUCTION
✅BODY/ MAIN BODY
✅ CONCLUSION
✅ A FORMAL SUBSCRIPTION
✅ SIGNATURE AND FULL NAME WRITTEN UNDER IT

How To Write Formal/Official/Business Letters

✔️ ADDRESS AND DATE
Two addresses are required in formal letters. The writer's address and the recipient's address. The writer's address should be at the top right hand corner.

The styles of address are:

i. block/straight
ii. slanted/indented

The punctuation styles:
i. punctuated
ii. unpunctuated

Examples of the writer's address

BLOCK/STRAIGHT(PUNCTUATED)

Asanteman Senior High School,
Post Office Box 3776,
Suame, Kumasi.

9th March 2021.

SLANTED/INDENTED (UNPUNCTUATED)

Wesley Girls Senior High School
      Post Office Box 82
          Cape-Coast, Ghana.

9th March 2021.

NB: The date is not a part of the address; hence it should be punctuated.

✔️ RECIPIENT'S ADDRESS
This address is often written at the top left side . It always shows designation of the office.
Examples

✅The Headmaster,
✅The District Chief Executive,
✅The Director,
✅The Minister,
✅The Chairman, 

The Headmaster,
Asanteman Senior High,
Post Office Box 3776,
Suame, Kumasi.

NB: DON'T ADD A DATE TO THE RECIPIENT'S ADDRESS.

The Minister,
Ministry of Finance,
Post Office Box 33,
Accra, Ghana.

✔️ SALUTATION
Use the following greetings for formal letters: Dear Sir, or Dear Madam, ( You use Sir for editors of newspapers too).

✔️THE HEADING/TITLE
Any official letter must have a heading or title. The heading is supposed to be a summary of the subject matter or theme of the letter. The title always comes below the salutation.

NB: It should be written in block capitals. I will be posting one question which happens to be last year's WASSCE question. It's going to serve as a summary of what we have learnt here before we move on.

Question: As the senior prefect of your school, write a letter to your principal, explaining to him the reasons why your school should take part in sporting activities. (WASSCE 2020)

NOW LET'S EXAMINE THE QUESTION ABOVE

WRITER'S ADDRESS

Asanteman Senior High School,
Post Office Box 3776,
Suame, Kumasi.

9th March 2021.

RECIPIENT'S ADDRESS

The Principal,
Asanteman Senior High,
Post Office Box 3776,
Suame, Kumasi.

Dear Sir,✅
         Dear Sir, ❌

HEADING
It should start from where the comma ends in the salutation.

REASONS WHY MY SCHOOL SHOULD TAKE PART IN SPORTING ACTIVITIES

NB: Kindly desist from ending the heading with a  FULLSTOP.

✔️ LET'S CONTINUE WITH THE BODY OF A FORMAL/ OFFICIAL/ BUSINESS LETTER.

✅ The body of a formal letter, like any other letter, should be arranged logically in paragraphs.

✅ Each paragraph must contain a single idea well explained.

✅ The use of acceptable connectives should be used; e.g., Firstly, Secondly, Moreover, Furthermore, In addition to, Finally etc.)

❌Avoid these (To start the ball rolling, To begin with, In a nutshell)

✅ After  the connective, every word that follows should begin with a small letter.

Example:  Firstly, drug✅Drug❌ abuse is one of the causes of teenage pregnancy.

✅ The use of a topic sentence must be encouraged. A  topic sentence is a  sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph in which it occurs.

Let's look at this example.

If the question was on the causes of teenage pregnancy, it's going to be like this.

Firstly, drug abuse is one of the causes of teenage pregnancy.✅

Firstly, drug abuse.❌

That's the difference✅

Therefore, Our connective is the Firstly, our point is the drug abuse, and our topic sentence is one of the causes of teenage pregnancy.

✅ Some contracted forms of words (aren't, won't, couldn't, haven't etc.) and colloquialisms must all be avoided in formal letters.

The tone or the language should be formal as well as impersonal (non-personal).

✅ The use of polite words must be encouraged.

For Example:

Can❌ Could✅

Shall❌ Should✅

Will ❌ Would✅

THAT'S ALL FOR THE BODY OF A FORMAL/OFFICIAL/ BUSINESS LETTER.

✔️ CONCLUSION OF A FORMAL/OFFICIAL/ BUSINESS LETTER

✅It is imperative to conclude your letter or essay always. A good conclusion will make the recipient feel like wishing to read more from you.

✅ Your conclusion should be in just one paragraph, and it should be a summary of what the body entails or talks about.

✅ If the question demands a solution to a certain problem, you can add it up.

Now let's look at this.👇

✅Introduction (1 paragraph)

✅Body(3 paragraphs or more, not less)

✅Conclusion (1 paragraph)

✔️FORMAL SUBSCRIPTION, SIGNATURE AND FULL NAME WRITTEN UNDER IT

✅ The subscription comes just after the last word of  the letter. For formal letters, it should be Yours faithfully.

Yours faithfully,✅
Your's faithfully,❌
Yours' faithfully,❌
Yours faithfuly,❌
Yours faithful,❌

✅ You are reminded that only the first word in a subscription is capitalized.

✔️ SIGNATURE AND FULL NAME

✅ The writer's signature follows the subscription. Then comes the writer's full name.

Yours faithfully,
..............
Jeffery Boahen.


Yours faithfully,
 ...............
David Amewornu.


Yours faithfully,
...............
Stallone Clarks.


Yours faithfully,
.............
Mary Boateng.


Yours faithfully,
..............
Agnes Yeboah.

Yours faithfully,
.................
Misty Joe.


© Jeffery Boahen.
(Tutor, Asanteman Senior High)

Five Ways to Turn Your Stammering into Your Biggest Strength

Five Ways to Turn Your Stammering into Your Biggest Strength
One of the reasons most people shy away from public speaking is the fear of stammering or stuttering. A person who stammers or stutters has difficulties in speaking. There is often the repetition of a particular sound involuntarily during speech. This leads to delayed speech, or inability to flow or pronounce certain words. Because people naturally expect spoken language to flow easily, they see stammering as a speech defect, and are usually tempted to mock or get irritated by people who stammer. This act of embarrassment and non-acceptance kills the confidence of stammerers. But there is some good news if you have this challenge. It is a savable situation! There are sterling speakers who are chronic stammerers yet they are doing so well. Do you know that the best interpreter I have come across is a stammerer? Are you asking how? Stammering is not a defect; it is a blessing in disguise; you can have control over it. It can be managed! 

In this article, we shall look at five ways to turn your stammering into your biggest strength. We shall also look at ways you can support people who stammer. 

1. Self-acceptance: No matter what your abilities or inabilities are, you need to accept who you are and work towards becoming the better version of yourself. Self condemnation leads to inferiority complex. Inferiority complex is a twin of low self-esteem and this is one of the negative triggers of stammering. Self acceptance gives you confidence, and confidence is a resistant to people's mockery, bullying, and non-acceptance. When you look down on yourself wherever you find yourself, you are easily intimidated and more likely to stammer when you are required to speak. However, if you see value in yourself, you are able to take control of how you speak. It doesn't mean you won't stammer when you speak, but it means you will be unashamed even when you stammer. When you have this positive outlook of yourself, stammering would never be a barrier to your quest to speak in public.

2. Breath control: The cause of stammering is unconscious; you don't do it on purpose. It may not be entirely curable, but it can be manageable. One of the surest ways of managing stammering is learning to take time to breath in and out in the course of speaking. "Taking smaller breaths with your diaphragm can help you relax and may help you speak more fluently." Stress, anger, and fatigue are triggers of stammering. Whenever you find yourself in any of these situations as a stammerer, you need to slow down when talking. Speaking at a fast rate will only worsen the case. Learn to time yourself. Speak at regulated intervals. You can choose to pause (take some breath) after every three words you mention. It works well as you practice. 

3. Avoid Triggers: The anticipation to stammer is most likely to make you stammer. You must therefore psyche your mind that you are in control. Avoid triggers (activities that are likely to make you stammer). For example, unnecessary arguments, loquaciousness (talking too much), anger, over excitement, self condemnation, verbosity, show offs, stress and fatigue, unpreparedness to speak, etc. If you are able to avoid these triggers, you would definitely reduce the chances of you stammering in public. 

4. Accept the opportunities to speak in public: There is the tendency to use stammering as a reason to shy away from speaking in public. Whereas it is quite understandable, it is not an excuse enough to miss out on the immense benefits of being able to speak in public. Ask yourself, how long am I going to run away from public speaking? I dare you to challenge yourself today. Motivate yourself, psyche your mind, work on your breath control and timing, avoid triggers, prepare for whatever you are expected to speak on, and mount that stage with confidence. Once you break that ice, I tell you, there is no stopping you! You may experience embarrassing moments from the beginning, but you will get better; I promise you. Practice makes perfect.

5. Be kind on yourself: It is natural to get upset and devastated if one public speaking experience (especially the first) goes terribly bad for you. That in spite of your preparation and application of all the tips given here you stammer as never before -- Be kind on yourself! One bad day does not define you or your capabilities; it only shows that you are trying. The embarrassment you feel today is not pretty or fun; but it is not enough reason to quit public speaking for the rest of your life. If you know your aspirations in life, you wouldn't allow temporary shame to stop you from achieving them. 

© Eric Nuamah Korankye (Hamlet) (Writer/Editor)

9 New Words/Phrases #EndSARS Gave Nigerians

The protest against police brutality in Nigeria left behind some words and phrases which have become popular with most Nigerians to date. Which of these words or phrases is your favourite?
#EndSARS Protest in Nigeria
1. WE MOVE
This phrase (which is usually used as a phrasal verb) simply means to continue an action.

The presence of the "verbalised" subject "we" makes it impossible to add another subject when using this phrase.

Example: We were attacked by hoodlums at Rumuokoro Junction while protesting police brutality. We move, regardless.

2. SELINA
–noun
black magic; voodoo

Example: In Port Harcourt, EndSARS protesters who didn't have selina were asked to stay behind.

3. SORO SOKE
–verb
i. To speak loudly or plainly

Example: This is not time to murmur; it's time to soro soke.

ii. To express one's opinion openly and unreservedly.

Example: The protesters were never afraid to soro soke when it was something they believed in strongly.

–adjective
bold; fearless; brave

Example: This is a soro soke generation, not an off-the-mic generation.

4. BUHARI HAS BEEN A BAD BOY
This implies that President Buhari has failed in his mandate as the leader of Nigeria.

This phrase was first used by a 21-year-old Nigerian girl during an interview with Hip TV. In her words, “Buhari has been a bad boy, and we will come for him next.”

5. WEREY WAN DISGUISE
This phrase is used when someone displays false attitude towards something in order to hide their true nature.

Example: SWAT is just a change of name; werey wan disguise.

6. FEM
This word became popular with Nigerian youth after Davido used it to title one of his singles. Most #EndSARS protesters used it instead of "shut up" to silence some politicians who addressed them for hours.

"Fem" is used as a verb to mean "shut up".

Example: Olu talks too much. I think he should fem.

7. WAHALA FOR WHO
 –pidgin phrase
Trouble for someone

This expression is usually used to achieve humour and to indirectly get the attention of someone. If, for instance, you come across a girl flaunting her engagement ring unnecessarily, you can get her attention by saying "Wahala for who no get fiancé.” The girl will definitely look at your direction while you and your friends laugh about it.

8. NO DEY LOSE FOCUS
–pidgin phrase
To concentrate on the goal without wavering

This phrase came into existence when the #EndSARS protest was hijacked by hoodlums, giving rise to other criminal activities. It served as a constant reminder to protesters as regards the goal of the protest.

9. SELINA-TESTED
–adjective
If you are selina-tested, it means you have an invisible bulletproof vest on your body through voodoo practices.

Example: Selina-tested protesters led the protest in Port Harcourt.