September 30, 2018

Rhetorical Strategies in Feminist Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Speech

Rhetorical Strategies in Feminist Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Speech


Rhetorical Strategies in Feminist Discourse:A Critical Discourse Analysis of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Speech
Language cannot be discussed outside the human context; this is because it is a universal property possessed by all humans. It is a universal means of human communication. It is an instrument of social existence, without which communication would have been completely impossible. Language is indispensable because it serves as a vehicle which conveys human thoughts, information, ideas, emotions, ideologies etc. Language is central and crucial to man, and it is the quintessential endowment that differentiates man from other animals. Language provides man a tool to enhance growth and progress. The language one speaks tells much about one’s identity with regards to where the person comes from. Not being oblivious of these magical powers of language, individuals and groups have used it persuasively to inculcate their ideologies in the minds of others, and our pen goddess, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, is one of such individuals.

JUST IN: Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) suspends strike

JUST IN: Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) suspends strike

The Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) has suspended its ongoing nationwide strike following promises by the Federal Government to reconvene the tripartite committee on national minimum wage on October 4. The workers are demanding a new minimum wage of about N50,000 instead of the current national minimum wage of N18,000.
JUST IN: Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) suspends strike

The suspension of the warning strike takes effect from today, Sunday, September 30, 2018. Announcing the decision in Abuja on Sunday, the NLC President, Ayuba Wabba, stated that the labour action was suspended to enable the tripartite committee to hold its crucial meeting and conclude its work.


With this, workers are expected to resume duties on Tuesday as Monday has been declared a public holiday by the federal government to mark the country's Independence Day.

September 25, 2018

An Open Letter to the Buharists

An Open Letter to the Buharists

Dear Buharists,

I'm here to sympathise with you in this your trying period. For over 3 years now, I have watched you suffer in the most difficult situations trying to defend your bad news of a president. The worst of it is that while you do so on empty stomachs, some have become stupendously rich at your applause.
An Open to the Buharists

The son of a man who once borrowed N21m to purchase presidential form can now afford a N45m playing toy. But you who contributed to see him becoming the president can't even buy textbooks for your wards in school. My love for humanity will not let me know these things and not pity you.

As a lawyer, I know what it is and how it feels to defend a bad case, especially when my client keeps exposing the bad situation I try to cover up and making me look empty headed. I also know as a lawyer that I have to keep doing my job no matter how bad the situation is. But the law allows me to back out when my conscience is being impeached , especially when I become aware that my client never told me the truth in the matter I try to defend.

In your case, I see you can't back out as it becomes obvious that you may be under a spell. I have a strong feeling that Baba has taken your matter beyond the earth, hence you cannot see even when we shout it that your brains might have been replaced by the concoction probably exhumed from the grave of a wicked native doctor. It would be heartless of me not to show understanding of these possible facts so as to limit the weight I attach to your insults.

Your case is likened to that of a deaf and blind man walking in the direction of a moving trailer. You don't call him foolish; you try to rescue him because his ability to see or hear the danger is zero. Now you understand why you are still on my list.


The highest level of your ignorance is calling everyone who points out the wrongs in this government corrupt or PDP members. I know the concoction wouldn't let you see that some of us have never been politicians or in any party. I know the concoction lacks the potency to tell you that we don't need to be corrupt to know that the market price of all commodities have tripled since Baba came on board. Yeah, it can't tell you that since fuel price was hiked to N145 per litre in the bid to remove subsidy, the actual amount still spend on subsidy is far above what the PDP government spent on subsidy when fuel price was N87. Do I blame you when I know you are under a spell? No!

You have before you 2019, another opportunity to liberate yourselves. But you seem still far from the knowledge of the realities on ground, even though you now lack words to defend this failure of your supposed Messiah. Day after day, the realities reflect even in your pockets.

My pain, still, is that you are growing stronger bones in your gullibility, obviously because you've stayed too long mirroring "lifelessness". You can't stay too long perceiving faeces and not inherit the smell.

Accept my sympathy. Trust me, when the spell is broken, you will be fine....

Or I should say, if the spell is broken.

It's I, Itse De, your "better-life" wailing friend.


© Barr. Itsede Kingsley Okhai
First Term's English Examination Questions for JSS 1 – SSS 3

First Term's English Examination Questions for JSS 1 – SSS 3

First Term's English Examination Questions for JSS 1 – SSS 3

But for some factors like low pay, writing of lesson notes, setting of examination questions, marking of students' examination scripts and compilation of students' results, teaching is really an interesting job. Among these factors, setting of students' examination questions, especially English examination questions, is really tiring and has made teaching job more taxing. To help reduce the workload of my colleagues, I decided to publish first term's English examination questions (for JSS 1 – SSS 3) from which they can set their first term's questions.

Click HERE to get the questions.

September 24, 2018

Joint Ownership of Property in Marriage: What the Law Says

Joint Ownership of Property in Marriage: What the Law Says

Partners in a marriage sometimes find it necessary to jointly acquire property while the marriage lasts. The property may be acquired in their individual names or both names.
Joint Ownership of Property in Marriage: What the Law Says
Barr. Itsede Kingsley Okhai
Under such joint ownership, a husband and wife share equal ownership of the property and have the equal undivided right to keep or dispose of the property. When one partner dies, the other receives all of the property they own jointly. But while they are both alive, the powers exercisable on such property must be exercised jointly by both parties. As such, the husband cannot without his wife's consent, dispose of or transfer by a Will, any property he jointly owns with his wife, even after the dissolution of the marriage.

Most incidents of joint ownership occur where a husband and wife contribute to the purchase and/or development of a property. Such contribution may be financial or material, provided that it is substantial and ascertainable. The reverse is the case where no contribution is proved. Unless the spouse claiming contribution is able to provide convincing proof of a direct and substantial contribution to the acquisition of the property, such spouse cannot claim joint ownership. This is particularly so where the property in question was purchased in the individual name of the husband or the wife.

In some other cases, a husband may purchase a property in the name of his wife or vice versa. In such circumstances, the law would presume an intention to gift the property to the wife or the husband as the case may be. This is called a presumption of advancement. The presumption of advancement can, of course, be rebutted by proving that no gift was intended. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, property bought by a husband in the sole name of his wife is presumed to be a gift to her. This extends to where a husband acquires title to land with his sole funds but inserts his wife's name as a co-owner. In such cases, the wife will acquire an equal interest in the property. The husband may prove that his wife contributed nothing financially but the court would presume that the wife's half share is a gift to her.

Where a property is bought in the name of a partner for which both parties contributed, what is the status of the other spouse whose name is not on the title documents of the property? The answer has been given by the Court in the case of Okere v. Akaluka (2014) LPELR-24287(CA).  

                 

In the above cited case, the Federal Ministry of Housing and Environment allocated a property to Mr. Paul Akaluka in his name alone. At the time of allotment, the property was a one-bed room apartment. Mrs. Theresa Akaluka supported her husband by contributing financially towards the payment of the purchase price for the property. She also contributed to the reconstruction and improvements to the property. When the property was reconstructed and expanded to a three bedroom apartment, Mr. and Mrs. Akaluka moved in there with their seven children.

They lived together until Mr. Akaluka packed out of the building and abandoned his family, choosing to live with his concubine in another part of the town. While his wife and children were still resident in the property, Mr. Akaluka sold the house to Mr. Okere without the knowledge of his wife. Shortly after this, Mr. Akaluka died.

Upon her discovery of the sale, Mrs. Akaluka went to the High Court and asked the court to declare that alongside her husband, she was a joint owner of the property. She also asked the court to order that the purported sale of the property by her husband to Mr. Okere, without her consent as joint owner, was void. Finally, she asked the court to make an order restraining the buyer and his agents from ejecting her and her children from the property.

On the other hand, Mr. Okere disputed her claim of joint ownership of the disputed property and contended that the sale of the property to him by the late Mr. Akaluka was valid because all the documents were in the name of Mr. Akaluka alone and he was the only one described as the owner therein.

The Court held that the property was jointly owned by Mr. and Mrs. Akaluka as she substantially contributed towards the purchase of the property and also contributed towards its reconstruction, expansion and improvement. And so, Mr.  Akaluka cannot dispose of the property without her consent.

By this position,  the fear of some wives whose husbands have been outsmarted by omitting their names in the title documents after contributing to acquire family property has been taken care of.  It's however difficult most times to prove that a party whose name is not captured in the title document is a contributor.  It's safer to insist, in wisdom, to have your name reflected.

Note, however, that this does not apply to properties singly purchased by a partner before a marriage and those individually purchased without any form of contribution by the other spouse in a marriage.  So, marrying a rich man or woman is not a guarantee of your share if your contribution in acquisition of the property is not ascertained. The Court considers what is just and equitable in each case.

Happy knowing😊!

© Barr. Itsede Kingsley Okhai

About the Author

Itsede K. Okhai is the Lead Associate of Majek-Aina, Okhai & Associates, a firm of legal practitioners based in Lagos and an Advocate for Justice.

September 22, 2018

Get a whopping 5.2GB for N100 and 10.4GB for N200 on glo jollific8

Get a whopping 5.2GB for N100 and 10.4GB for N200 on glo jollific8

Inarguably, this month (September) has been the best in terms of data bundles. While some MTN subscribers are still enjoying the MTN mPulse data plan with flawless downloads, some Glo subscribers are busy grooving on their Glo data ships. Nice! We deserve the best, and it is obvious Glo already knows this truth as it has pushed out another amazing package to some of its subscribers. This package is known as Glo jollific8.
Get a whopping 5.2GB for N100 and 10.4GB for N200 on glo jollific8
On Glo jollific8 package, you can get 5.2GB of data for just N100 and 10.4GB of data for N200 only. Although it is 'sim-selective,' you can give it a try if your location has a stable and fast Glo network for browsing. 

How to Get 5.2GB for N100 and 10.4GB for N200 on Glo Jollific8

1. Dial *603# to migrate to Glo Jollific8 package.

2. Recharge your line with N100 or N200 via e-top up such as bank mobile app, bank USSD code etc.

3. You’ll receive either 5.2GB for N100 or 10.4GB for N200.


How to Check Your Data Balance on Glo Jollific8 Package 
Dial *606*6*2*2#

Data Validity Period
The ‘awof' data you get on Glo Jollific8 is valid for 30 days, that is, a month.

Note: Every recharge gives 8 times the value of what you recharge, and every recharge comes with free data and free voice calls. You can also choose to share free data with someone else via gift. On-net and off-net calls are charged at 67k/s.

September 17, 2018

The expected and unexpected challenges faced by all first-year students in Nigerian Universities

The expected and unexpected challenges faced by all first-year students in Nigerian Universities


The expected and unexpected challenges faced by all first-year students in Nigerian Universities
The challenges faced by first-year students of any Nigerian university cannot be compared to those faced by secondary school leavers who are doing everything possible to gain admission into any of the universities in Nigeria. It is assumed that the first year of freshers is always easy, straight and a run-on-the-mill experience where everything is gotten on a platter of gold since it is their first year in school. In fact, most first-year students have walked into the university with this sense of reasoning, only to realize that their assessment of the university environment is faulty and holds no water; thus, making them to buckle up and face the harsh realities of the tertiary institution with insurmountable seriousness.

As against general assumption, gaining admission into any Nigerian university does not put an end to the problems one faced while seeking admission into a university or any tertiary institution in Nigeria. Rather, it is the starting point for some familiar and unfamiliar challenges. These challenges are discussed below:

1. SETTLING DOWN
First on the mind is the curiosity of getting to know your new environment for the foreseeable future. House hunting is supposed to be done at this stage, and most students actually prefer having their lounge/apartment closer to the campus for easy transition. But when that isn't possible due to lack of space or unwillingness to live in campus-provided lounges, they tend to look outside for suitable houses with affordable price tags.

Getting used to campus environment is quite stressful because one has to find his faculty and teaching centres in the midst of other gigantic structures which are far away from where one lives.

2. LANGUAGE
Language is also a challenge as most universities are located in states or communities where one's mother tongue is not spoken. This will make it difficult to get vital information about the school and the community from the natives, especially the elderly ones who neither understand English nor Pidgin.

Besides, the importance of language in trade cannot be overemphasized. A food item of N200 can be sold to a student at N150 if he/she bargains price with the seller in the seller's language. In other words, a student who does not understand the language of the community where his/her school is located is likely to get goods and services at higher prices since most of the traders will be natives of that community.


3. LECTURE TIME
In most tertiary institution in Nigeria, lectures start at 8:00am and end at 4:00pm. However, some lecturers are good at fixing their lectures before and after the official time to suit their schedules for the day. First-year students always find this challenging since they are not used to it. 
  
4. CONGESTION OF THE LECTURE HALLS
Unlike in secondary schools, most of the lectures in universities take place in halls. And halls are usually bigger than classrooms, yet overcrowded to the extent that lecturers may be forced to speak with public address systems. This doesn't help the situation either, especially when they choose to do so in high tempo and linguistic accents that may be difficult to decode.

5. LECTURES' TEACHING STYLE AND MARKING SCHEME
The mode of teaching in any tertiary institution differs from what first-year students are used to in secondary schools. Most university lecturers only scratch a topic on its surface and compel the students to research on it. This is one of the familiar challenges that a first-year student encounters in any Nigerian university. Students are perceived by university power brokers to be sophisticated and flexible in all aspects of their academic lives hence the complex scheme of work.

Also, students whose secondary schools failed to implant in them the necessary ethos of dictate writing will struggle to take down important points as a lecturer explains a topic or dictates his note.

Surprisingly, most lecturers do not mark your examination scripts based on correctness. Rather, they mark them based on what they have given you in class. In other words, if your explanation of a concept does not correspond with the lecturer's, you will be awarded zero regardless of its correctness. This is entirely different from secondary school examinations where students can always go behind to pick points and ideas which correspond with their teachers' explanations but differ in style.

6. LIBERTY
Liberty is an unexpected challenge, too. Most first-year students who have been deprived of certain freedoms while in college or secondary school due to strict parental guidance or rules and regulations of their secondary schools, may want enjoy the freedom that comes with being university students. They develop this terrible habit of procrastination. Postponing and delaying every assignment, missing classes and indulging in other frivolities with friends. This, if not quickly and carefully managed, may cost the students their academics. One needs to strike the right balance between school and social affairs in order not to face the awkward distraction when they meet in loggerhead.

Freshers might just need to find repose in new ways because there are always going to be bouts of nostalgia by virtue of being new to town and having fewer sidekicks. The thoughts of family and friends left behind could come flooding in, especially at a time when they feel regress and need someone close to comfort them. 

Tertiary institutions have always been skilled at announcing themselves to incomers, especially 'jambites,' and these 'jambites' always arrive in quick successions. However, the ability to prepare for their arrival has been a major challenge. And that is why we have the aforementioned problems which may not be resolved soon. Therefore, determination, resolve and focus are the correct tools any fresher/freshman must wield in order to address these problems, and one just has to look beyond them in the right manner in order to maintain a positive outlook.

WRITTEN BY:
Victor Wisdom
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

Below is first term's scheme of work for Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) 1 - 3.
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 – 3

First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1

Week 1: MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
i. Definition of Agriculture
ii. Branches of Agriculture
iii. Importance of Agriculture to the individual, community and the nation

Week 2: PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Problems created by inadequate:
i. Land
ii. Basic amenities
iii. Finance
iv. Transportation
v. Shortage and processing facilities
vi. Agricultural education and extension
vii. Tools and machinery
viii. Farm inputs

Week 3: SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIA
Possible solutions to identified problems

Week 4: HUSBANDRY OF SELECTED CROPS (ROOT AND TUBER CROPS) e.g.,YAM, CASSAVA, SWEET POTATOES.
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation
iv. Manuring and fertilizer application
v. Harvesting, processing and storage of the selected crops

Week 5: HUSBANDRY OF SELECTED CROPS (CEREALS) e.g., MAIZE, RICE etc.
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation, planting dates, seed rates, spacing, sowing depth
iv. Manuring and fertilizer requirements and application
v. Harvesting, processing and storage

Week 6: LAND AND ITS USES
i. Definition of land
ii. Uses of land for:
a. Agriculture
b. Forestry
c. Wildlife

Week 7: FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
Factors affecting land availability for Agricultural purposes:
i. Alternative uses of land, e.g. building of cities, towns, industries, roads
ii. Soil type and topography

Week 8: HUSBANDRY OF OIL CROPS, e.g., OIL PALM, MELON, GROUNDNUT
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation (pre-planting and planting operations)
iv. Manuring and fertilizer requirements
v. Harvesting, processing and storage of oil crops

Week 9: HUSBANDRY OF BEVERAGE, e.g., COCOA, TEA AND COFFEE
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation (pre-planting operations)
iv. Manuring and fertilizer requirements
v. Harvesting, processing and storage of beverage

Week 10: HUSBANDRY OF LATEX CROP, e.g. RUBBER
i. Method of propagation
ii. Climatic and soil requirements
iii. Land preparation, nursery requirements
iv. Manuring and fertilizer requirements and application
v. Harvesting, processing and storage

Week 11: PRACTICAL: IDENTIFICATION
Identification of the common crops available, e.g. oil palm fruits, cocoa pod, kola nut, rubber seed, cotton seed and lint, groundnut pod, different species of maize etc.

Week 12 – 13
REVISION/EXAMINATION


First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 2

Week 1: AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
Land ownership and tenure systems in Nigeria

Week 2: LAND USE ACT OF NIGERIA
Land use Act of 1978:
i. Features of the Act
ii. The need for government to enforce the law etc.

Week 3: ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Role of government in Agricultural production, e.g.,
i. Making of agricultural policies
ii. Drawing of agricultural programmes
iii. Provision of loans and subsidies
iv. Provision of agricultural education etc.

Week 4: FOREST MANAGEMENT
Forest management techniques:
i. Forest regulation
ii. Selective exploration
iii. Deforestation
iv. Regeneration
v. Afforestation
vi. Taungya system

Week 5: DISEASES OF CROPS
Diseases of major crops: e.g.,
i. Cereals – smut, rice blast, leaf rust
ii. Legume – cercosporal leaf spot, rosette
iii. Beverages – cocoa blackpod, coffee leaf rust
iv. Tuber – cassava mosaic virus, bacterial blight etc.

Week 6: SYMPTOMS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CROP DISEASES
i. Symptoms of diseases, e.g., spots, yellowing, rots, wilting, stuntedness etc.
ii. Economic importance, e.g., increase cost of production, reduces quality of crops, reduces farmer's income etc.

Week 7: PREVENTIVE AND CONTROL MEASURES OF DISEASES
i. Cultural methods
ii. Biological methods
iii. Chemical methods

Week 8: IMPORTANT INSECT PESTS OF MAJOR CROPS:
i. Cereal – system borer, army-worm, ear-worm
ii. Legume – pod borer, aphids, sucki bugs,leaf beetle
iii. Beverage – cocoa myrids (capsids)

Week 9: OTHER IMPORTANT PESTS
i. Other important pests:
a. Birds
b. Rodents
c. Man
d. Monkey

ii. Nature of damages done:
a. Destruction of leaves
b. Destruction of tender stems
c. Destruction of root/tubers

Week 10: ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SELECTED PESTS
i. Economic importance of pests:
a. Reduction in quality of crops
b. Reduction in quantity of crops
c. Makes vegetables unattractive and unmarketable etc.

ii. Preventive and control measures:
a. Cultural methods
b. Biological methods
c. Chemical methods

iii. Side effects of the various preventive and control methods:
a. Chemical pollution
b. Poisoning etc.

Week 11: PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS
Morphology of the common grass and legume species of Nigerian pastures.

Week 12: TYPES OF PASTURE
i. Types of pasture:
a. Permanent pasture
b. Rotational pasture
c. Temporary pasture
d. Irrigated pasture

ii. Factors affecting pasture:
a. Establishment
b. Distribution
c. Productivity

iii. Management practices of a pasture land

Week 12 – 13
Revision/Examination

First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 3

Week 1: CROP IMPROVEMENT
a. Meaning and aims of crop improvement
b. Mendelian Laws

Week 2: CROP IMPROVEMENT II
c. Processes of crop improvement
i. Introduction
ii. Selection
iii. Breeding

Week 3: PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT 
a. Susceptibility and resistance to diseases
b. Predisposing factors:
i. Health status of the animals
ii. Environment
iii. Nutrition

Week 4: PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT II
c. Symptoms, effects and mode of transmission, e.g.,
i. Viral – foot and mouth diseases, rinder pest, new castle disease
ii. Bacterial – anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis
iii. Fungal – scabbies, ringworm
iv. Protozoa – trypanosomiasis, coceidiosis

Week 5: PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT III
d. Ecto-Endo parasites, life cycles and mode of transmission
e. Methods of:
i. Preventing – quarantine, inoculation, vaccination, hygiene, breeding.

ii. Control – treatment by a veterinary doctor, destruction.

Week 6: FISH FARMING AND FISHERY REGULATIONS
a. Establishment and maintenance of fish pond

Week 7: FISHERY REGULATIONS
b. Fishery regulations

Week 8: ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
a. Aims and Meaning of animal improvement
b. Methods of animal improvement:
i. Introduction
ii. Selection

Week 9: ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT II
iii. Breeding – inbreeding, line-breeding, cross breeding

Week 10: IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
a. Importance of irrigation and drainage
b. Drainage system: channel, sprinkles, underground etc.

Week 11: IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE II
c. Merits and demerits of each: irrigation and drainage system
d. Problems associated with irrigation:
i. High cost of maintenance
ii. Water availability
iii. Build up of pest and diseases

Week 12 – 13
Revision/Examination