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September 27, 2017

GOVERNMENT: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 - 3

GOVERNMENT: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 - 3

If you are a government teacher or student in any of the high/secondary schools in Nigeria, below is the approved scheme of work for first term.
GOVERNMENT: First Term's Scheme of Work for SSS 1 - 3

FIRST TERM'S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 1
Week 1
Definition of the Subject Matter (Government).
Week 2
BASIC CONCEPT OF GOVERNMENT
  • Power
  • Authority
  • Legitimacy
  • Sovereignty
Week 3
  • Democracy: Meaning and features.
  • Political culture.
  • Political socialization.
Week 4
  • Political participation.
  • Communalism.
  • Feudalism.
Week 5
BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT (CONTINUED):
  • Capitalism.
  • Socialism.
Week 6
BASIC CONCEPT OF GOVERNMENT (CONTINUED):
  • Communism.
  • Fascism.
  • Totalitarianism.
Week 7
TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT
  • Unitary system of Government (meaning, characteristics, merits and demerits).
Week 8
TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT
  • Parliamentary system of Government.
  • Presidential system of Government.
  • Comparison of Parliamentary system and presidential system of Government.
Week 9
TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT (CONTINUED):
  • Confederal system of Government.
  • Monarchical system of Government.
  • Comparison of federalism and confederalism.
Week 10
Organs of Government.
Week 11 - 12
Revision/Examination.

FIRST TERM'S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 2
Week 1
CIVIL SERVICE
  • Meaning/definition
  • Characteristics
  • Structure.
  • Functions.
  • Control
  • Problems.
Week 2
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION IN THE CIVIL SERVICE
  • Meaning of Civil Service Commission
  • Functions of the Civil Service Commission.
  • The Relationship between the civil service and the political executive.
Week 3
PUBLIC CORPORATION
  • Definition.
  • Reasons for the establishment of public corporation.
  • Functions of public corporation.
Week 4
STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION OF PUBLIC CORPORATION
  • Minister as a political head.
  • Board of Director.
  • Management.
  • Comparison of the organisation.
Week 5
CONTROL AND PROBLEMS OF PUBLIC CORPORATIONS
  • Reasons for the control of public corporations.
  • Types of control: ministerial, parliamentary and judicial control.
  • Problems facing public corporation.
Week 6
COMMERCIALIZATION: Definition, reasons for commercialization, merits and demerits.
Week 7
PRIVATIZATION: Definition, reasons, merits and demerits.
Week 8
DEREGULATION: Meaning, reasons, merits and demerits.
Week 9
LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA
  • Meaning of Local Government.
  • Reasons for Local Government Administration.
  • Functions of Local Government.
  • System of Local Government in Britain and France.
Week 10
THE STRUCTURE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  • The evolution of Local Government.
  • Sources of finance of Local Government.
  • Relationship among Local, State and Federal Government in Nigeria.
  • Rules of traditional rulers in Local Government administration.
  • Local Government reforms.
  • Problems facing Local Government and measures to Local Government administration in Nigeria.
Week 11 - 12
Revision/Examination.

FIRST TERM'S SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 3
Week 1
  • Federalism: Definition/meaning.
  • Emergence of federalism in Nigeria.
  • Factors that necessitated the formation of federalism.
  • Conferences organised by colonial powers.
Week 2
NATURE AND STRUCTURE OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM
  • Federalism before Independence from 1914 - 1959.
  • 1960 - 1966.
  • 1967 - 1975.
  • 1976 - Date.
Week 3
PROBLEMS OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM.
  • Revenue allocation formula in Nigeria.
  • Need for revenue allocation in a federal state.
  • Conflict over each adopted revenue allocation formula.
Week 4
MINORITY ISSUE AND THE CREATION OF STATES
  • The major and minor ethnic groups in Nigeria.
  • Reasons for the demand of more states.
  • Complexity and endless nature of the state creation.
  • Recommendation of Willink's Commission.
  • Solution to minority problems in Nigeria.
Week 5
INTER-ETHNIC RIVALRY AND ISSUE OF STATE CREATION
  • The nature of ethnic conflict and rivalry in Nigeria.
  • Problems of secession in Nigeria.
  • Measures to avoid secession in Nigeria.
Week 6
DEVELOPMENTAL OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA
  • National Democratic Party (NDP).
  • Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM).
  • National Council of Nigeria and Cameroon Citizens (NCNC).
Week 7
DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA (CONTINUED)
  • Action Group (AG).
  • Northern People's Congress (NPC).
  • Northern Elements Progressive Union (NEPU).
  • Northern Party of Nigeria (NPN).
  • Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN).
  • Nigerian People's Party (NPP).
Week 8
DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA (CONTINUED)
  • Great Nigerian People's Party (GNPP).
  • People's Redemption Party (PRP).
  • Nigerian Advance Party (NAP).
  • Social Democratic Party (SDP).
  • National Republican Convention (NRC).
Week 9
DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA (CONTINUED)
  • People's Democratic Party (PDP).
  • All Nigerian People's Party (ANPP).
  • Alliance for Democracy (AD).
  • Action Congress (AC) and small political parties.
Week 10
MAJOR POLITICAL CRISES IN NIGERIA
  • Kano riot 1953.
  • Eastern region constitution 1953.
  • Census crisis 1962/63.
  • Action group crisis.
  • Nigerian civil war 1967 - 1970.
Week 11
Revision.
Week 12
Examination.


When and how to use "etc." and "et al."

When and how to use "etc." and "et al."

“etc.” and “et al.” are well known abbreviations in English, but English users still misuse them because of their semantic relationship. Although these abbreviations carry the same meaning, they are used in different contexts.
When and how to use "etc." and "et al."

“etc.” is an abbreviation of the word, “et cetera”which means “and others” or “and so forth”. It is used after a list of things to show that there are other things that you could have mentioned. Please, take note of the phrase, a list of things”. The phrase emphasizes that you don't use “et cetera” when listing people, but when listing things or items. For example, you don't say, “Tammy shared his food with Dennis, Emma, Moses, Peters, etc.” In this example, "et al." should be used instead. 

On the other hand, “et al.” is derived from the Latin expression et alii” (for masculine), “et aliae” (for feminine) or “et alia” (for neuter) which means “and so on” or “and others”. Unlike “etc.”, “et al.” is used after a list of persons to show that there are other persons that you could have mentioned. For example, “Tammy shared his food with Sammy, Ezekiel, Dennis, Peters, Chidi, et al.”

EXAMPLES SHOWING THE CORRECT USE OF THESE ABBREVIATIONS
  • The literature texts for this year's WAEC examination are OthelloNative SonA Raising in the Sun, etc.
  • Chinua Achebe, Wole Soyinka, Kofi Awoonor, Chimamanda Adichie, Gabriel Okara, et al. are literary icons.
From the examples above,  you should use “etc.” when listing items or things, and "et al." when listing people. It is also important to state that both “etc.” and “et al.” must always be followed by a full stop regardless of where they appear in a sentence.

September 25, 2017

THE VOICE NIGERIA (Season 2): 7 Lessons You Can Learn from IDYL's Victory

THE VOICE NIGERIA (Season 2): 7 Lessons You Can Learn from IDYL's Victory

Finally, the die has been cast! The Voice Nigeria, season 2, has come to an end yesterday, Sunday, 24th September, 2017, with Idyl emerging as the Winner. Indeed, it has been an interesting journey, spiced with tension (the eviction tension) and enthusiasm for Syemca, Jahtell, J’Dess, Idyl, Chris Rio, Yimika, Ebube and Wow. However, one among the eight contestants didn’t experience the eviction tension, and that was Jahtell.
THE VOICE NIGERIA (Season 2): 7 Lessons You Can Learn from IDYL's Victory

These are a few lessons you can learn from Idyl's victory:

1. Do not let your background put your back on the ground.
You are born poor does not mean you should remain or die poor. You should always strive to free yourself from the vicious and "padlocked" chains of poverty. Nobody owns the key to the padlock but you. Efe did it and Idyl has done it so you can do it! Idyl said he is "proudly from the street"; but after yesterday's victory, will he still remain in the street? No! That has become a history; it will only make his bio more motivational.

2. Always take the bull by the horns
Never be comfortable with your current level. The pathway to success is full of thorns, but only those who are prepared to go through it, regardless of the odds, can achieve it. The real "you" is realized through this process.

3. It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy (Romans 9:6).
Among the contestants, Idyl was the least person most viewers expected to win. As a matter of fact, there were contestants whose performances and vocals were far better than that of Idyl, but in all, God's mercy and unmerited favour fell on him. May God's mercy fall on you! Don't think I am Davido oh! You better say "Amen" to that. LOL!

4. Be focused and determined in your career!
If you still play hide and seek game with your career, you are yet to have a future. The determination to succeed in his career path was what took Idyl to the voice Nigeria, season 2. On getting there, he never hid such zeal under a bushel. The contestants went through series of rigorous trainings and teachings that can be applied by only those who are determined and focused. One of the instigators of Idyl's victory was his determination and focus.
5. We all need one another to succeed
In competition like this, "votes" matter a lot. Idyl emerged victorious because people spent their hard earned cash to vote for him. Let's learn to support one another and the society will be a better place.

6. Always be nice to people, irrespective of who they are.
As a boy from the street, Idyl might have been condemned by some persons yesterday, but who knows the current look on the faces of those persons who might have condemned him?

7. Above all, hard work pays! Don't be lazy in all that you do.

Congrats to Idyl, the second winner of The Voice Nigeria, with Agharese Emokpae winning the first season in 2016. His victory has earned him a recording contract with Universal Music Group, an SUV car worth N7m and a trip to Abu Dhabi. 


Personal pronouns and their plural forms

Personal pronouns and their plural forms

Personal pronouns and their plural forms posit a lot of problems among English learners. While a handful can only state the examples of personal pronouns, majority neither know these examples nor their plural forms. Therefore, this article adequately discusses personal pronoun, its examples and plural forms.
Personal pronouns and their plural forms

Before taking a trip to the home town of personal pronoun, it is very important we first pay a visit to its ancestor --- pronoun. A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun in a sentence. In other words, a pronoun is a word that is eligible to take the place of a noun in a sentence.
Example:
  • John is very intelligent and he likes playing football.
In the sentence above, "he" is a pronoun and it is used instead of "John" which is a noun in the first clause.

In English, pronouns are mostly used to avoid repetition. This is clearly exemplified in the sentence above where "he" is used instead of "John" in the second clause in order to avoid the repetition of "John" in the sentence. Without the pronoun "he", the sentence would have been "John is very intelligent and John likes playing football".

There are different types of pronoun: personal, reflexive, possessive, relative, interrogative, demonstrative and indefinite; but as earlier stated, this article discusses personal pronoun. Personal pronoun is a pronoun that is primarily associated with person(s).

TYPES OF PERSONAL PRONOUN
1. First person
This is the person speaking or reporting. The first person is further divided into two: the first person singular, which are "I & me" and the first person plural, which are "we & us".

2. Second person
This is the person being addressed or spoken to. This is further classified into two: the second person singular (you) and the second person plural (you). "You" remains "you" whether in singular or plural form.

3. Third person 
This is the person being spoken about or being discussed. Just like other types, it is divided into two: the third person singular (he, she, it, him & her) and the third person plural (they & them).


As seen above, personal pronoun may be singular or plural and may appear in the subjective case or objective case.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS APPEARING IN SUBJECT POSITION AND THEIR PLURAL FORMS
Subject form (singular)
Plural form
I
We
You
You
He/she/it
They
Sentence Examples
  • I love Tammy.
  • You love Tammy.
  • He/she/it loves Tammy.
  • We love Tammy.
  • You love Tammy.
  • They love Tammy.
From the sentence examples above, you can see that all the personal pronouns appear in the subject position.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS APPEARING IN OBJECT POSITION AND THEIR PLURAL FORMS
Object form (singular)
Plural form
Me
Us
You
You
Him/her/it
Them 
Sentence examples
  • Tammy loves me.
  • I love you.
  • Tammy loves him/her/it.
  • Tammy loves us.
  • Tammy loves you.
  • Tammy loves them.
Unlike in the first sentence examples, the personal pronouns in these sentence examples occupy the object position to show that they appear in object form.

ALL PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
All personal pronouns of English are grouped under their singular and plural forms in the table below.
Personal pronoun (singular form)
Personal pronoun (plural form)
I
We
You
You
He/she/it
They
Me
Us
You
You
Him/her/it
Them
I hope the lesson was understood? Don't hesitate to use the comment box if you need clarification!

September 23, 2017

How to stop receiving U-report's incessant  text messages

How to stop receiving U-report's incessant text messages

Indeed, there are solutions to every problem in life except HIV/AIDS. LOL! Even the HIV/AIDS can still be managed although it is incurable. The disturbance one gets from U-report's text messages is worse than some problems in life. As a matter of fact, some persons prefer having headache to receiving U-report's numerous text messages.

Are you wondering what U-report is? Well, National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) members (like me) who served in the Northern part of Nigeria in 2014 and 2015 need no explanation since they already know what I am talking about. However, for the benefit of all, U-report is a free SMS social monitoring tool for community participation, designed to address issues that the populace care about.

In 2014, U-report visited Nigeria, but instead of leaving like every other visitor, it became an autocratic/dictatorial landlord, making corps members its first victims. On a mandatory order by the Federal Government of Nigeria, corps members (as we were being told), under the strict supervision of NYSC officials, were not only forced to join this platform but were also commanded to invite their friends, enemies, well wishers and relatives to join the platform. It even got to a point where corps members were required to submit the names, phone numbers and addresses of people they've registered on U-report before they could do their monthly clearance. SMH!

The exercise was really annoying, but as Nigerians, we playfully got over it. We never knew "it is not over until it is over". U-report had since become a thorn in our flesh through the incessant text messages it sends to us (its subscribers). Consequently, most of my friends had to do away with their affected SIM cards, but I could not because I used my primary SIM cards, neither could I opt out even when I wanted to. This is the most annoying part of it all --- we were only taught how to opt in. This is really tricky and crafty! But the good news is that I am no longer a U-reporter, and you too can stop being one if you want.

Important notice: If you've never served but keep receiving text messages from U-report Nigeria, with the number 24453, do know that your number(s) was/were registered on U-reporter's platform by your friend, enemy, sibling or relative who had served. Please, don't blame them for their actions. You would do same if you were in similar situation. Kindly follow the steps below to opt out.

HOW TO OPT OUT OF U-REPORT

1. Text YOUREPORTEXIT to 24453

2. After a minute, you will receive a text message like the one below.
3. Reply with or type EXIT, then hit the "send" button if you really want to opt out.

4. You will receive another message shortly just like the one below.

5. Once you receive the second message, you are good to go! No more spam messages from U-report. However, you can always join the platform by sending the word JOIN to 24453.

Please, kindly use the comment box to give us feedback.

September 20, 2017

ENGLISH LANGUAGE: First Term's scheme of work for SSS 1 - 3

ENGLISH LANGUAGE: First Term's scheme of work for SSS 1 - 3

Below is first term's scheme of work for English language for Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) 1 - 3. English teachers can teach with this while students can read ahead with it.
 ENGLISH LANGUAGE: First Term's scheme of work for SSS 1 - 3
SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 1
Week 1
  • The consonant sounds: /j/ and /z/.
  • Revision of common nouns.
  • Uses of capital letters.
  • Narrative composition/essay.
  • Reading comprehension.
Week 2
  • The consonants :/ᵭ/ and /θ/
  • Vocabulary development: Words related to agriculture.
  • Sentences.
  • Expository essay.
  • Reading comprehension.
Week 3
  • The consonant /w/
  • Noun Phrase.
  • Reading comprehension.
Week 4
  • Summary writing.
  • Countable/uncountable nouns.
  • Writing: Popular article for various reading audience.
Week 5
  • Syllabic consonants.
  • Reading comprehension.
  • More on summary writing.
Week 6
  • Pronouns (Introduction)
  • Vocabulary development.
Week 7
  • Words of two syllables, with stress on the second syllable.
  • Possessive pronoun.
  • More on summary writing.
Week 8
  • Words associated with religion.
  • Regular and irregular verbs.
  • Reading comprehension.
Week 9
  • Consonant clusters.
  • Pronouns (other types).
  • Formal letter.
Week 10
  • Speech writing.
  • Semi formal letter.
  • Differences between phrases and clauses.
  • More on summary writing.
Week 11 - 12
  • Revision/Examination.

SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 2

Week 1
  • Speech work.
  • Vocabulary development: Medicine.
  • Noun phrase: position and functions.
Week 2
  • Listening skills; recording work.
  • Vocabulary development: Words associated with health.
  • Pronouns.
  • Expository essay.
Week 3
  • Nominalisation of adjectives.
  • Speech writing.
Week 4
  • Argumentative essay.
  • The unstressed vowel: /ә/.
Week 5
  • Consonant cluster.
  • Adjectives and adverbs.
  • Summary writing.
Week 6
  • Consonant cluster in word initial position.
  • Adjectival phrases and their grammatical functions.
  • Sentences.
  • Creative writing.
Week 7
  • Narrative essay.
Week 8
  • Adverbial phrases and functions.
  • Formal letters.
  • Vowel sounds: /u/, /u:/, /i/, /i:/, /e/ and /ʒ:/
  • Reading comprehension.
Week 9
  • Diphthongs: /ei/, /ai/, /au/ and /uә/
Week 10
  • Reading comprehension.
Week 11 - 12
  • Revision/Examination.
SCHEME OF WORK FOR SSS 3

Week 1
  • Revision on:
  • Noun and Noun phrase.
  • Expository essay.
  • Consonants.
  • Reading comprehension.
Week 2
  • Intonation
Week 3
  • Vocabulary development: Words associated with administration and government.
  • Listening to oral presentation.
  • Sentence analysis - simple, compound and complex sentences.
Week 4
  • Summary writing.
  • Idioms/idiomatic expressions.
Week 5
  • Word stress/stress pattern.
Week 6
  • Words with three consonant cluster.
Week 7
  • Reading comprehension
  • Grammatical names and functions.
  • Concord.
Week 8
  • Emphatic stress.
Week 9
  • Collocation.
Week 10
  • Revision.
Week 11 - 12
  • Examination.
NOTE: If you need comprehensive note(s) on any of the topics mentioned above, you can contact us via the "contact us" box or the comment box.